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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Balto-Slavic *kauˀ-, from Proto-Indo-European *kowh₂-, from the root *kewh₂-. Cognate with Lithuanian káuti (to hew, to beat, to murder), Latvian kaût (to fight), Latin cūdere (to forge, to beat, to grind), Old Norse hǫggva (to hew, to beat), Old High German houwan (to hew, to beat), Old Irish cuad (to beat, to fight).


*kovàti impf[1][2]

  1. to forge


Alternative forms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: ковати (kovati)

Further reading[edit]

  • Černyx, P. Ja. (1999) , “кова́ть”, in Istoriko-etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Historical-Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), volume 1, 3rd reprint edition, Moscow: Russkij jazyk, page 407
  • Vasmer, Max (1964–1973) , “кова́ть”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language] (in Russian), translated from German and supplemented by Oleg Trubačóv, Moscow: Progress
  • Trubačóv, Oleg, editor (1985) , “*kovati”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), volume 12, Moscow: Nauka, page 10


  1. ^ Derksen, Rick (2008) , “*kovàti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 241: “v. (c) ‘forge’”
  2. ^ Olander, Thomas (2001) , “kovati: kujǫ kujetь”, in Common Slavic accentological word list, Copenhagen: Editiones Olander: “c (SA 204, 212, 214, 236; PR 139)”