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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-kāˀ, from extended version of Proto-Indo-European *-keh₂, appended to thematic roots. The suffix could be attached to any stem (o-, u-, i-, or consonant). Cognate with Sanskrit -क (-ka).


*-ъka f

  1. Denominal, forms diminutives.
    Synonym: *-ica, *-ъlа (with additional derogatory flair)
    *mati (mother) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*matьka, *maťerъka (mommy)
    *teta (aunt) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*tetъka (auntie)
    *gora (mountain) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*gorъka (small mountain, hill)
    *pǫpъ (belly button) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*pǫpъka (pimple)
    *kotъ (cat) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*kotъka (young cat)
    *bylьje (herb plant, medicine) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*bylьka (herb)
    *lъga (oval tool) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*lyžьka (spoon) (along with *lъžica)
    *vidla (pitchfork) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*vidlъka (fork) (along with *vidlica)
    *pala (stake, pole) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*palъka (cane, stick) (along with *palica)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of the specified property.
    *bělъ (white) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*bělъka (something or somebody white)
    *čьrnъ (black) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*čьrnъka (something or somebody black)
    *bolь (painful) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*bolъka (acute pain)
    *polъ (half) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*polъka (one half; type of dance)
    *-měrъ (considerable, great) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*měrъka (measure, estimate)
  3. Deverbal, denoting a (feminine) agent or a tool performing the specified action or a result from the action.
    *prositi (to ask, to beg) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*prošьka (remission, pardon)
    *dojiti (to nurse, to give milk) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*dojьka (breast, wet-nurse)
    *krojiti (to cut, to shape) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*krojьka (embroidery, needlework)
    *brojiti (to count) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*brojьka (account, number)
    *bьrati (to gather, to pick) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*sъbirъka (gathering, assemblage)
    *pьrati (to propel) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*perъka (fin, propeller, vane (of a machine))
    *svirati (to play a music instrument) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*svirъka (flute)
  4. From numerals, denoting a set of the respective number. For numerals between 4 and 8, the supplementary *-orъ is affixed.
    *dъva (two) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*dvojьka (pair)
    *trьje (three) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*trojьka (triple)
    *četyre (four) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*četvorъka (set of four)
    *pętь (five) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*pętorъka (set of five)
    *desętь (ten) + ‎*-ъka → ‎*desętъka (decade)

Alternative forms[edit]

  • *-jьka (when attached to roots ending in *-j- or some i-stems)


Derived terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -ъка (-ŭka)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: -ka
    • Polish: -ka
    • Polabian: -kă
    • Slovak: -ka
    • Slovincian: -ka
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: -ka
      • Lower Sorbian: -ka


  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32