Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/-ъka

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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Extended version of Proto-Indo-European *-keh₂, appended to thematic roots. The suffix could be attached to any stem (o-, u-, i-, or consonant).

Suffix[edit]

*-ъka f

  1. Denominal, forms diminutives.
    Synonym: *-ica, *-ъlа (with additional derogatory flair)
    *mati (mother)*matьka (mommy)
    *teta (aunt)*tetъka (auntie)
    *gora (mountain)*gorъka (small mountain, hill)
    *pǫpъ (belly button)*pǫpъka (pimple)
    *kotъ (cat)*kotъka (young cat)
    *bylьje (herb plant, medicine)*bylьka (herb)
    *lъga (oval tool)*lyžьka (spoon) (along with *lъžica)
    *vidla (pitchfork)*vidlъka (fork) (along with *vidlica)
    *pala (stake, pole)*palъka (cane, stick) (along with *palica)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of the specified property.
    *bělъ (white)*bělъka (something or somebody white)
    *čьrnъ (black)*čьrnъka (something or somebody black)
    *bolьjь (painful)*bolъka (acute pain)
    *polъ (half)*polъka (one half; type of dance)
    *-měrъ (considerable, great)*měrъka (measure, estimate)
  3. Deverbal, denoting a (feminine) agent or a tool performing the specified action or a result from the action.
    *prositi (to ask, to beg)*prošьka (remission, pardon)
    *dojiti (to nurse, to give milk)*dojьka (breast, wet-nurse)
    *krojiti (to cut, to shape)*krojьka (embroidery, needlework)
    *brojiti (to count)*brojьka (account, number)
    *bьrati (to gather, to pick)*sъbirъka (gathering, assemblage)
    *pьrati (to propel)*perъka (fin, propeller, vane (of a machine))
    *svirati (to play a music instrument)*svirъka (flute)
  4. From numerals, denoting a set of the respective number. For numerals between 4 and 8, the supplementary *-orъ is affixed.
    *dъva (two)*dvojьka (pair)
    *trьje (three)*trojьka (triple)
    *četyre (four)*četvorъka (set of four)
    *pętь (five)*pętorъka (set of five)
    *desętь (ten)*desętъka (decade)

Other forms[edit]

  • *-jьka (when attached to roots ending in *-j- or some i-stems)

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Descendants[edit]

  • East Slavic:
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: -ka
    • Polish: -ka
    • Slovak: -ka
    • Slovincian: -ka
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: -ka
      • Lower Sorbian: -ka

References[edit]

  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32