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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Extended version of Proto-Indo-European *-keh₂, appended to thematic roots. The suffix could be attached to any stem (o-, u-, i-, or consonant).


*-ъka f

  1. Denominal, forms diminutives.
    Synonym: *-ica, *-ъlа (with additional derogatory flair)
    *mati (mother)*matьka (mommy)
    *teta (aunt)*tetъka (auntie)
    *gora (mountain)*gorъka (small mountain, hill)
    *pǫpъ (belly button)*pǫpъka (pimple)
    *kotъ (cat)*kotъka (young cat)
    *bylьje (herb plant, medicine)*bylьka (herb)
    *lъga (oval tool)*lyžьka (spoon) (along with *lъžica)
    *vidla (pitchfork)*vidlъka (fork) (along with *vidlica)
    *pala (stake, pole)*palъka (cane, stick) (along with *palica)
  2. Deadjectival, denoting a carrier of the specified property.
    *bělъ (white)*bělъka (something or somebody white)
    *čьrnъ (black)*čьrnъka (something or somebody black)
    *bolьjь (painful)*bolъka (acute pain)
    *polъ (half)*polъka (one half; type of dance)
    *-měrъ (considerable, great)*měrъka (measure, estimate)
  3. Deverbal, denoting a (feminine) agent or a tool performing the specified action or a result from the action.
    *prositi (to ask, to beg)*prošьka (remission, pardon)
    *dojiti (to nurse, to give milk)*dojьka (breast, wet-nurse)
    *krojiti (to cut, to shape)*krojьka (embroidery, needlework)
    *brojiti (to count)*brojьka (account, number)
    *bьrati (to gather, to pick)*sъbirъka (gathering, assemblage)
    *pьrati (to propel)*perъka (fin, propeller, vane (of a machine))
    *svirati (to play a music instrument)*svirъka (flute)
  4. From numerals, denoting a set of the respective number. For numerals between 4 and 8, the supplementary *-orъ is affixed.
    *dъva (two)*dvojьka (pair)
    *trьje (three)*trojьka (triple)
    *četyre (four)*četvorъka (set of four)
    *pętь (five)*pętorъka (set of five)
    *desętь (ten)*desętъka (decade)

Alternative forms[edit]

  • *-jьka (when attached to roots ending in *-j- or some i-stems)


Derived terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
    • Old East Slavic: -ъка (-ŭka)
  • South Slavic:
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: -ka
    • Polish: -ka
    • Polabian: -kă
    • Slovak: -ka
    • Slovincian: -ka
    • Sorbian:
      • Upper Sorbian: -ka
      • Lower Sorbian: -ka


  • Šekli, Matej (2012), “Besedotvorni pomeni samostalniških izpeljank v praslovanščini”, in Philological Studies[1] (in Slovene), volume 10, issue 1, Skopje, Perm, Ljubljana, Zagreb, pages 115–32