-j

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Egyptian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Marks the dual form of nouns and adjectives. Attaches to the singular form if feminine or the plural form if masculine.
  2. Sometimes added to suffix pronouns attached to dual nouns.
Usage notes[edit]

Often this is represented by writing the phonetic or determinative glyph twice, e.g. tꜣwj:

N16
N16
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic *-i (genitive-possessive case ending).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Converts nouns and prepositions into masculine adjectives: the masculine nisba adjective ending.

Etymology 3[edit]

From earlier *-iu or *-iju, from Proto-Afro-Asiatic *-u (nominative case ending) attached to a root ending in *-i or *-ij.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Suffix[edit]

i
  1. Forms i-stem masculine nouns from roots.

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Forms prepositional adverbs from certain prepositions.

Etymology 5[edit]

From the earlier infinitival ending -t; the consonant of this suffix became silent over time, leaving its remaining vowel to be represented by -j.

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Forms the infinitive of anomalous verbs, weak verbs (except for fourth weak verbs with a geminated stem), and causative biliteral verbs.

Etymology 6[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Optionally marks the masculine imperfective active participle, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Optionally marks the masculine geminated perfective passive participle of strong biliteral verbs, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.

See also[edit]

  • .j (first-person singular suffix pronoun)

References[edit]

  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the nominative plural in /i/ or /j/ found in many European languages, particularly the original diphthongs Ancient Greek -οι (-oi), -αι (-ai), and Latin -ae.

Suffix[edit]

-j

  1. -s. (Marks the plural form of nouns, adjectives, and some pronouns.)
    juna patro (young father)junaj patroj (young fathers)

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-j

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the second-person singular subjunctive/imperative of verbs (indefinite conjugation).
    vár (to wait)Várj! - Wait!

Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]