-j

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Albanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Related to reflexive pronoun u (I).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-j

  1. Attached to o-stem verbs (in active voice). Indicating 1st person singular; indicative, present.
    Examples of o-stem verbs:
    afro (bring closer!) + -jafroj (I bring closer)
    barazo (equalize!) + -jbarazoj (I equalize)
    krahaso (compare!) + -jkrahasoj (I compare)
    shko (go!) (2nd pers. singular verb form) + -j (I)shkoj (I go)

Egyptian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Marks the dual form of nouns and adjectives. Attaches to the singular form if feminine or the plural form if masculine.
  2. Sometimes added to suffix pronouns attached to dual nouns.
Alternative forms[edit]
Often this suffix is represented by writing the phonetic or determinative glyph twice, e.g.
N16
N16
for tꜣwj.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Hypothesized to be from Proto-Afroasiatic *-i (genitive-possessive case ending).

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Converts nouns (including proper nouns and nisbas used nominally), prepositions, independent pronouns, and numerals into masculine adjectives: the masculine nisba adjective ending.
Usage notes[edit]

In Old Egyptian this suffix was still productive. By Late Egyptian this was no longer the case, and adjectives with the suffix were lexicalized.

Alternative forms[edit]

This suffix is sometimes not written; in Old Egyptian, such omission is the usual practice.

Etymology 3[edit]

Hypothesized to be from earlier *-iu or *-iju, from Proto-Afroasiatic *-u (nominative case ending) attached to a root ending in *-i or *-ij.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Suffix[edit]

i
  1. Forms i-stem masculine nouns from roots.

Etymology 4[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Forms prepositional adverbs from certain prepositions.

Etymology 5[edit]

From the earlier infinitival ending -t; the consonant of this suffix became silent over time, leaving its remaining vowel to be represented by -j.

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Forms the infinitive of anomalous verbs, weak verbs (except for fourth weak verbs with a geminated stem), and causative biliteral verbs.

Etymology 6[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Optionally marks the masculine imperfective active participle, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Suffix[edit]

y
  1. Optionally marks the masculine geminated perfective passive participle of strong biliteral verbs, intervening between the stem and the gender/number endings.

See also[edit]

  • .j (first-person singular suffix pronoun)

References[edit]

  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, 51, 61, 91, 95, 165, 328–329 page 39–40, 51, 61, 91, 95, 165, 328–329.
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • Allen, James P. (2017) A Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Volume 1: Unis, page 55
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 65

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the nominative plural in /i/ or /j/ found in many European languages, particularly the original diphthongs Ancient Greek -οι (-oi), -αι (-ai), and Latin -ae.

Suffix[edit]

-j

  1. -s. (Marks the plural form of nouns, adjectives, and some pronouns.)
    juna patro (young father)junaj patroj (young fathers)

Hungarian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-j

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the second-person singular subjunctive/imperative of verbs (indefinite conjugation). It is also part of all subjunctive/imperative suffixes in both indefinite and definite conjugations.
    vár (to wait)Várj! ― Wait!
    Várjak?Should I wait?

Usage notes[edit]

See also[edit]