Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search


Etymology 1[edit]





 sg 1. suffix pronoun

  1. I, me, my (see usage notes)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of pronoun attaches directly to the preceding word, and means different things depending on what it is attached to.

  • When attached to a noun, it indicates the possessor of the noun.
  • When attached to a verb of the suffix conjugation, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to an infinitive verb (especially of an intransitive verb) whose subject is not otherwise expressed, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to a transitive infinitive verb whose subject is otherwise expressed or omitted, it indicates the object of the verb.
  • In the third person, when attached to a prospective participle, it indicates gender and number agreement.
  • When attached to a particle like jw or a parenthetic like ḫr, it indicates the subject of the clause.
  • When attached to a preposition, it indicates the object of the preposition.
  • When it follows a relative adjective such as ntj or ntt, it indicates the subject of the relative clause (except in the first person singular and third person common).
Alternative forms[edit]

The first person singular suffix pronoun is often not written; particularly, it is regularly omitted in Old Egyptian. When it is written, it has a number of variants:

Further, it can, optionally, be varied to indicate the identity of the antecedent — a distinction which would not have been indicated in speech, e.g.:

In Late Egyptian, the presence of this pronoun results in the retention of final -t when the word it is attached to ends in this consonant; this is sometimes expressed by leaving the pronoun unwritten but adding
t W
to indicate the retained -t.

Etymology 2[edit]




 m sg 3. stative ending

  1. (Old Egyptian, attached to a stative verb form) he, him
Alternative forms[edit]


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN
  • Edel, Elmar (1955-1964) Altägyptische Grammatik, Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 52
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 32–33
  1. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 56, 63