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Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic [Term?]; compare Arabic ـنَا (-nā).




 pl 1. suffix pronoun

  1. we, us, our (see usage notes)
Usage notes[edit]

This form of pronoun attaches directly to the preceding word, and means different things depending on what it is attached to.

  • When attached to a noun, it indicates the possessor of the noun.
  • When attached to a verb of the suffix conjugation, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to an infinitive verb (especially of an intransitive verb) whose subject is not otherwise expressed, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to a transitive infinitive verb whose subject is otherwise expressed or omitted, it indicates the object of the verb.
  • In the third person, when attached to a prospective participle, it indicates gender and number agreement.
  • When attached to a particle like jw or a parenthetic like ḫr, it indicates the subject of the clause.
  • When attached to a preposition, it indicates the object of the preposition.
  • When it follows a relative adjective such as ntj or ntt, it indicates the subject of the relative clause (except in the first person singular and third person common).
Alternative forms[edit]
In Late Egyptian, the presence of this pronoun results in the retention of final -t when the word it is attached to ends in this consonant; this is as a rule expressed by adding
before the pronoun to indicate the retained -t.

Etymology 2[edit]

Most likely grammaticalized from the preposition n (to, for).



  1. Forms the perfect of all verbs.
  2. Forms the perfect relative form of all verbs.
Alternative forms[edit]


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 50, 227
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 52
  • Werning, Daniel A. (2008) “Aspect vs. Relative Tense, and the Typological Classification of the Ancient Egyptian sḏm.n⸗f” in Lingua Aegyptia 16, pages 261–292