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See also: TWT and tw*t



T w t

Independent pronoun: second person singular [Old Kingdom]

  1. you (see usage notes)

Usage notes[edit]

This form was standard in Old Egyptian. By Middle Egyptian, it had been replaced by ntk (masculine) & ntṯ (feminine), and was retained only as an archaism.

Unlike the suffix pronouns and dependent pronouns, the independent pronouns are not tied to any other element of the sentence. Nevertheless, their meaning depends on context.

  • After an infinitive, it is the subject of the verb.
  • Before a noun, its meaning can be ambiguous
    • In the first and second person, it could be the subject of a noun phrase
    • Alternatively, in all persons, it can be the predicate of a noun phrase
    • But if the noun is a participle, then in all persons it could be either the subject or the predicate of a noun phrase.
    • If the demonstrative pronoun pw is placed between the pronoun and the noun, the pronoun is definitly the predicate
  • Before an adjective, in the first person only, it is the subject of an adjectival phrase.

When the independent pronoun is the subject it may, but not always, indicate an emphasised subject.

There are alternative hieroglyphic writings:

w t

w t

A53 M40
twt twt


Allen, Middle Egyptian