From earlier tj.
f sg proximal, later copular/vocative demonstrative adjective
This demonstrative was originally an adjective but could later be used alone, like a pronoun. When used as an adjective it follows the noun it describes.
|pj1, pw, pwy
||tj1, tw, twy
|1 In Old Egyptian.
2 In Middle Egyptian.
3 In Old Egyptian, these pronouns were unmarked for number and gender, but treated syntactically as masculine plurals when used with participles and relative forms, and as feminine singulars when referred to by resumptive pronouns. In Middle Egyptian, they take over the function of the plural demonstrative adjectives and are joined by n(j) to nouns they modify.
There is also an alternative form that cannot stand alone as a pronoun: twy.
impersonal enclitic (‘dependent’) pronoun
- used as the impersonal subject of an adverbial predicate or verb form; one, someone or something unspecified [Middle Egyptian]
- used as a substitute for noun phrases referring to the king [since the New Kingdom]
In the sense referring to the king, this pronoun is conventionally translated as capitalized “One”.
m sg enclitic (‘dependent’) pronoun
- Variant spelling of
- Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6, page 54–55, 181
- Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, ISBN 0-900416-32-7
- Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44384-9