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See also: TW, tw., .tw, t.w., and ṯw


Etymology 1[edit]

From earlier tj.


t w

 f sg proximal, later copular/vocative demonstrative adjective

  1. this [Old Egyptian]
  2. this is… [Middle Egyptian]
  3. O (vocative reference) [Middle Egyptian]
Usage notes[edit]

This demonstrative was originally an adjective but could later be used alone, like a pronoun. When used as an adjective it follows the noun it describes.

Alternative forms[edit]

There is also an alternative form that cannot stand alone as a pronoun: twy.


t w

impersonal enclitic (‘dependent’) pronoun

  1. used as the impersonal subject of an adverbial predicate or verb form; one, someone or something unspecified [Middle Egyptian]
  2. used as a substitute for noun phrases referring to the king [since the New Kingdom]
Usage notes[edit]

tw can be used as a subject without any introductory particle only with a verb in the periphrastic prospective (the pseudoverbal construction with r).

In the sense referring to the king, this pronoun is conventionally translated as capitalized “One”.

Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]


t w

 m sg 2. enclitic (‘dependent’) pronoun

  1. Variant spelling of ṯw


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6, page 54–55, 181
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, ISBN 0-900416-32-7
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44384-9