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 m sg anaphoric demonstrative determiner

  1. (Old Egyptian) O (vocative reference)
  2. (Middle Egyptian) the aforementioned, the said
  3. (Late Egyptian) the definite article; the
  4. (Late Egyptian, with following noun) he of, this of, that of

Usage notes[edit]

This demonstrative was originally a determiner but could later be used alone, like a pronoun. When used as a determiner it precedes the noun it describes.

In Middle Egyptian, this pronoun was possibly somewhat colloquial; in Late Egyptian its force had weakened to that of a definite article.


Alternative forms[edit]


  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 54–56.
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 53
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 87
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 68–70