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 m sg vocative, later anaphoric demonstrative determiner

  1. O (vocative reference) [Old Egyptian]
  2. the aforementioned, the said [Middle Egyptian]
  3. the [Late Egyptian]

Usage notes[edit]

This demonstrative was originally a determiner but could later be used alone, like a pronoun. When used as a determiner it precedes the noun it describes.

In Middle Egyptian, this pronoun was possibly somewhat colloquial; in Late Egyptian its force had weakened to that of a definite article.


Alternative forms[edit]


  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6, page 54–56
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, ISBN 0-900416-32-7, page 87
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44384-9, page 68–70