nj (uppercase Nj)
n (“to, for”) + -j (nisba ending).
- (reconstructed) IPA(key): /nij/ → /nij/ → /nəʔ/
- (Old Egyptian, c. 2500 BCE) IPA(key): /nij/
- (Middle Egyptian, c. 1700 BCE) IPA(key): /nij/
- (Late Egyptian, c. 800 BCE) IPA(key): /nəʔ/
- (modern Egyptological) IPA(key): /ni/
- Conventional anglicization: ni
- of, belonging to
- made of (a material or composition)
- of, possessing (a quality)
- introduces the agent of an infinitive when it is a personal pronoun
This genitival adjective can be used to express the indirect genitive. In this case, it indicates that the noun preceding it, with which it agrees in gender and number, is possessed by the noun which follows it.
In Late Egyptian the functional contrasts of characterization versus specification that distinguished the indirect and direct genitive disappeared, and outside a restricted set of particular words the indirect genitive with nj largely supplanted the direct genitive without it.
In Late Egyptian nj is usually not inflected by gender and number but invariably appears as nj. Sometimes the writings of the former feminine and plural forms are used interchangeably with the masculine singular without distinction. The exception is in more formal texts, where the old distinctions and inflections are sometimes still used.
n (“to, for”) + -j (adverbializing suffix).
- Variant form (before a noun) of n (“to, for”)
Cognate to Proto-Semitic *lā (“no, not”).
- (Old Egyptian) not; negates any sentence
- (Middle Egyptian) not; negates a nominal sentence, an adjectival sentence of possession, or the rheme of an emphatic clause (used with js; see Usage Notes below)
- (Middle Egyptian) not; negates most verbal predicates besides infinitival, imperative, and subjunctive forms; forms the negation of the perfect, perfect passive, terminative, perfective, imperfective, prospective, and prospective passive.
- no, not any; negates an individual noun
- not; negates other individual words
- When used alone, nj negates the individual word or verbal predicate following it.
- When negating (nonverbal) nominal sentences, adjectival sentences of possession (which start with the genitival adjective n(j)
), and rhemes of emphatic clauses, this particle is typically followed by the first element of the negated clause and then the negative particle js. In Middle Egyptian it cannot negate adjectival sentences which do not indicate possession, nor adverbial sentences, which are instead negated by nn. It also cannot negate verbal sentences that are not emphatic, so the presence of a verb between nj and js always indicates an emphatic clause.
- nj combines with a number of other words to form negative particles with more specialised meanings, for which see the next section.
- James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, 66, 71–72, 86–87, 127, 169, 194, 413–414 page 43, 66, 71–72, 86–87, 127, 169, 194, 413–414.
- Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 117–118
- Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 60–61, 63–64
nj (lower case, upper case Nj)
- A letter of the Fula alphabet, written in the Latin script.
- (Latin-script letters) karfeeje; ', A a, B b, Mb mb, Ɓ ɓ, C c, D d, Nd nd, Ɗ ɗ, E e, F f, G g, Ng ng, Ɠ ɠ, H h, I i, J j, Nj nj, K k, L l, M m, N n, Ŋ ŋ, Ñ ñ, Ɲ ɲ, O o, P p, R r, S s, T t, U u, W w, Y y, Ƴ ƴ
- (uppercase): Nj
nj (Cyrillic spelling њ)
- The 20th (digraph) letter of the Serbo-Croatian Latin alphabet (gajica), preceded by n and followed by o.
nj (Cyrillic spelling њ)
- him (clitic accusative singular of ȏn (“he”))
- it (clitic accusative singular of òno (“it”))
|genitive||njȅga, ga||njȇ, je||njȅga, ga||njȋh, ih||njȋh, ih||njȋh, ih|
|dative||njȅmu, mu||njȏj, joj||njȅmu, mu||njȉma, im||njȉma, im||njȉma, im|
|accusative||njȅga, ga, nj||njȗ, ju, je||njȅga, ga, nj||njȋh, ih||njȋh, ih||njȋh, ih|
|locative||njȅm, njȅmu||njȏj||njȅm, njȅmu||njȉma||njȉma||njȉma|
|instrumental||njȋm, njíme||njȏm, njóme||njȋm, njíme||njȉma||njȉma||njȉma|
- Latin Extended-B block
- Latin script characters
- Avokaya terms with IPA pronunciation
- Avokaya lemmas
- Avokaya letters
- Egyptian terms suffixed with -j
- Egyptian terms with IPA pronunciation
- Egyptian lemmas
- Egyptian adjectives
- Egyptian nisba adjectives
- Egyptian adverbs
- Egyptian prepositions
- Egyptian particles
- Egyptian proclitic particles
- Fula terms with IPA pronunciation
- Fula lemmas
- Fula letters
- Serbo-Croatian terms with IPA pronunciation
- Serbo-Croatian lemmas
- Serbo-Croatian letters
- Serbo-Croatian pronouns
- Serbo-Croatian words without vowels