ë

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ë U+00EB, ë
LATIN SMALL LETTER E WITH DIAERESIS
Composition:e [U+0065] + ◌̈ [U+0308]
ê
[U+00EA]
Latin-1 Supplement ì
[U+00EC]

English

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Symbol

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ë

  1. (lexicography, dated) An orthographic ⟨e⟩ with a diacritic that marks it as being the FACE vowel, as in the word "cafe".

Albanian

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (lower case Ë)

  1. The eighth letter of the Albanian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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Chipewyan

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Pronunciation

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  1. IPA(key): /e/

Letter

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ë (upper case Ë)

  1. A letter of the Chipewyan alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Dinka

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Pronunciation

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IPA(key): /e̤/

Letter

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ë (upper case Ë)

  1. A letter of the Dinka alphabet, written in the Latin script.

French

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ə/, /ɛ/
  • Audio:(file)

Letter

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ë (lower case Ë)

  1. the letter “e” in words when it must be pronounced separately and not associated with preceding letter. E.g. “-gue” is normally pronounced /ɡ/ but “-guë” is pronounce /ɡy/ (like in aiguë, ciguë); “œ” is normally pronounced /e/ or /ɛ/ but “oë” is pronounced /o.ɛ/ (like in troëne, Noël)

Hungarian

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. The close-mid front unrounded vowel as used in several Hungarian dialects;[1][2] more closed than the sound of e and shorter than that of é; used instead of e in certain, lexically determined places.
    Synonym: zárt e (literally closed e)
  2. The symbol to indicate this sound.[3]

Usage notes

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It can distinguish certain words that are otherwise homophones in the current standard (so it can act like a phoneme), e.g. nem: nem (gender, genus) and nëm (not);[4] mentek: mentëk (I save), mentek (exempt [plural]), mëntëk (you go [plural]), and mëntek (they went).[5]

Declension

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Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative ë ë-k
accusative ë-t ë-ket
dative ë-nek ë-knek
instrumental ë-vel ë-kkel
causal-final ë-ért ë-kért
translative ë-vé ë-kké
terminative ë-ig ë-kig
essive-formal ë-ként ë-kként
essive-modal
inessive ë-ben ë-kben
superessive ë-n ë-ken
adessive ë-nél ë-knél
illative ë-be ë-kbe
sublative ë-re ë-kre
allative ë-hez ë-khez
elative ë-ből ë-kből
delative ë-ről ë-kről
ablative ë-től ë-ktől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
ë-é ë-ké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
ë-éi ë-kéi
Possessive forms of ë
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. ë-m ë-im
2nd person sing. ë-d ë-id
3rd person sing. ë-je ë-i
1st person plural ë-nk ë-ink
2nd person plural ë-tek ë-itek
3rd person plural ë-jük ë-ik

Derived terms

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See also

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References

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  1. ^ …a zárt ë-t azonban lakosságunknak körülbelül 60%-a megkülönbözteti a nyílt e-től, tehát sokak számára természetes. Nem csupán nyelvjárási jelenség tehát, bár a nagyvárosi beszédből valóban hiányzik. (“…however, closed ë is distinguished from open e by approximately 60% of our population, so it is natural for many. Therefore, it is not only a dialectal phenomenon, although it is indeed missing from urban speech.”) In: Zimányi, Árpád. Nyelvhelyesség (’Standard Usage’). Eger: EKF Líceum Kiadó, 2005. A hatodik kiadás digitális változata (’Digital version of the sixth edition’), page 18.
  2. ^ Especially in the Western Transdanubian, Central Transdanubian, and the Székely/​Szekler dialects. In: A. Jászó, Anna, editor. A magyar nyelv könyve (’A Book of the Hungarian Language’). Eighth edition. Budapest: Trezor Kiadó, 2007. (First edition: 1991.) →ISBN, pp. 665–676.
  3. ^ See in square brackets e.g. by clicking the declension code “2B” at elv in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2024) as well as at the top of the entry of ember in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN.
  4. ^ Ëe-ző szótár. Alapszókincs (Kiejtes.hu)
  5. ^ Buvári Márta: Az „ë-zés” köznyelvisége (Kiejtes.hu)

Further reading

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  • A zárt ë rendszere, szabályai és mércéje a magyar köznyelvben. “The system, rules, and yardstick of closed ë in standard Hungarian” by András Mészáros (with an extensive list of minimal pairs in Appendix 1 and partly in Appendix 2; Kiejtes.hu)
  • Mindent a zárt ë hangról “Everything on the closed ë sound” by László Fejes (Nyest.hu)
  • Ilyen lënne az új helyësírás “This is what the new spelling would be like” by László Fejes (Nyest.hu)
  • Fejes László tévedései pontokba szedve “Mr. László Fejes’ mistakes, itemized” by András Mészáros (Kiejtes.hu)
  • Section 89 in A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (’The Rules of Hungarian Orthography, 12th edition’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015. →ISBN
  • ë in Pusztai, Ferenc (ed.). Magyar értelmező kéziszótár (’A Concise Explanatory Dictionary of Hungarian’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2003. 2nd, expanded and revised edition. →ISBN
  • Mészáros, András. Igényës (ë-ző) kiejtési kisszótár : adalékok a 15 magánhangzós magyar köznyelvi kiejtés mércéjének kialakításához. “Pocket dictionary of a discerning (ë-) pronunciation: contributions to shaping everyday standard Hungarian with 15 vowels.” 2nd, rev. ed. Bicske: Gondos Bt., 1999. →ISBN

Kashubian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈɜ/
  • Rhymes:
  • Syllabification: ë

Etymology 1

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The Kashubian orthography is based on the Latin alphabet. No earlier script is known. See the Kashubian alphabet article on Wikipedia for more, and ë for development of the glyph itself.

Letter

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ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. The ninth letter of the Kashubian alphabet, written in the Latin script.
See also
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Etymology 2

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Conjunction

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ë

  1. Alternative form of i

Further reading

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  • Stefan Ramułt (1893) “é”, in Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego[1] (in Kashubian), page 35
  • Eùgeniusz Gòłąbk (2011) chapter I, in Słownik Polsko-Kaszubski / Słowôrz Pòlskò-Kaszëbsczi[2], volume 1, page 515
  • ë”, in Internetowi Słowôrz Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka [Internet Dictionary of the Kashubian Language], Fundacja Kaszuby, 2022

Ladin

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (upper case Ë)

  1. The open-mid central unrounded vowel as used in the Gherdëina variant of Ladin.

See also

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Luxembourgish

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (upper case Ë)

  1. A letter of the Luxembourgish alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Middle High German

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Etymology

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The letter ë indicates the sound /ɛ/, which derives from Proto-Germanic *e (as in ëȥȥen) or *i (as in lëben), distinguished from e /e/ (also spelt ), which usually derives from Proto-Germanic *a.

Letter

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ë

  1. A letter sometimes used in normalised Middle High German spelling. It is optional in editions and never found in actual manuscripts.

Noon

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (upper case Ë)

  1. A letter of the Noon alphabet, written in the Latin script.

Romani

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. (International Standard) The letter e with the umlaut.

Usage notes

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Although it is pronounced the same as ä, it indicates a dialectal pronunciation of e.[1]

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Yūsuke Sumi (2018) “ë”, in ニューエクスプレス ロマ(ジプシー)語 [New Express Romani (Gypsy)] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Hakusuisha, →ISBN, page 16

Further reading

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  • Marcel Courthiade (2009) “DECISION : "THE ROMANI ALPHABET"”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (overall work in Hungarian and English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 499
  • Introduction 3. How to read Rromani”, in R.E.D-RROM[3], 2021 October 2 (last accessed)

Slovene

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Etymology 1

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation

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  • (sound): IPA(key): /joː/
  • (sound, educated): IPA(key): /jɔ/

Letter

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ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. (linguistics) Letter used for transcription of Russian Ё / ё.

Etymology 2

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Letter E with diaeresis (¨) to signify centralization.

Pronunciation

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  • (Resian, phoneme): IPA(key): /ə/

Letter

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ë (lower case, upper case Ë)

  1. The ninth letter of the Resian alphabet, written in the Latin script.

See also

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References

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  • Toporišič, Jože (2001) “Slovaropisna pravila”, in Slovenski pravopis (in Slovene), Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU, →ISBN, page 178
  • Steenwijk, Han (1994) Ortografia resiana = Tö jošt rozajanskë pïsanjë (overall work in Italian and Slovene), Padua: CLEUP

Slovincian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *i.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈə/
  • Syllabification: ë

Conjunction

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ë

  1. coordinating conjunction; and

Particle

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ë

  1. Introduces interrogative sentences.

Further reading

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Tagalog

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Pronunciation

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Letter

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ë (lower case, upper case Ë, Baybayin spelling )

  1. the letter e with a diaeresis representing a schwa

Usage notes

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  • In Tagalog and its standardized form Filipino, ë is used to represent the schwa, particularly in words originating from other Philippine languages, for instance Maranao (Mëranaw), Pangasinan, Ilocano, and Ibaloi. Before introduction of this letter, the schwa was ambiguously represented by a or e.
  • Writing the diaeresis is recommended but not required as long as the reader is aware that the unaccented form is supposed to sound like a schwa (/ə/).
  • The use of the diaeresis to represent the central vowel schwa is possibly inspired by the use of the diaeresis in the IPA to represent centralization.

See also

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Welsh

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Pronunciation

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  • (phoneme): IPA(key): /ˈeː/, /ˌɛ/

Letter

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ë (upper case Ë)

  1. The letter E, marked for its syllabic pronunciation distinct from adjacent vowels.