distal demonstrative pronoun
This demonstrative is a pronoun, and so does not directly modify nouns. In Middle Egyptian it becomes used as a demonstrative for plural nouns in place of the old adjectives jpf and jptf. When used in this way, it precedes the noun, with the genitival adjective n(j) in between, e.g. "those feet" is nf n(j) rdw (literally "that of feet").
There is a more colloquial variant: nfꜣ.
|pj1, pw, pwy
||tj1, tw, twy
|1 In Old Egyptian.
2 In Middle Egyptian.
3 In Old Egyptian, these pronouns were unmarked for number and gender, but treated syntactically as masculine plurals when used with participles and relative forms, and as feminine singulars when referred to by resumptive pronouns. In Middle Egyptian, they take over the function of the plural demonstrative adjectives and are joined by n(j) to nouns they modify.
- Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6
- Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, ISBN 0-900416-32-7
- Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44384-9