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See also: .nf, 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, 4NF, 5NF, 6NF, NF, Nf., nF, and nf3




distal demonstrative pronoun

  1. that

Usage notes[edit]

This demonstrative is a pronoun, and so does not directly modify nouns. In Middle Egyptian it becomes used as a demonstrative for plural nouns in place of the old adjectives jpf and jptf. When used in this way, it precedes the noun, with the genitival adjective n(j) in between, e.g. "those feet" is nf n(j) rdw (literally "that of feet").

It forms a contrastive pair with the demonstrative pronoun nn, in which nf is distal.

There is a more colloquial variant: nfꜣ.



  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, ISBN 0-900416-32-7
  • Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-44384-9