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See also: illo, illó, and illő



Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)


-illō (present infinitive -illāre, perfect active -illāvī, supine -illātum); first conjugation

  1. Forms diminutive verbs from verbs.
    focilō (I refresh, resuscitate), less commonly focillō, from the noun focus.
    cantillō (I hum, warble), from the verb cantō
   Conjugation of -illō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -illō -illās -illat -illāmus -illātis -illant
imperfect -illābam -illābās -illābat -illābāmus -illābātis -illābant
future -illābō -illābis -illābit -illābimus -illābitis -illābunt
perfect -illāvī -illāvistī -illāvit -illāvimus -illāvistis -illāvērunt,
pluperfect -illāveram -illāverās -illāverat -illāverāmus -illāverātis -illāverant
future perfect -illāverō -illāveris -illāverit -illāverimus -illāveritis -illāverint
sigmatic future1 -illāssō -illāssis -illāssit -illāssimus -illāssitis -illāssint
passive present -illor -illāris,
-illātur -illāmur -illāminī -illantur
imperfect -illābar -illābāris,
-illābātur -illābāmur -illābāminī -illābantur
future -illābor -illāberis,
-illābitur -illābimur -illābiminī -illābuntur
perfect -illātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect -illātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect -illātus + future active indicative of sum
sigmatic future1 -illāssor -illāsseris -illāssitur
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -illem -illēs -illet -illēmus -illētis -illent
imperfect -illārem -illārēs -illāret -illārēmus -illārētis -illārent
perfect -illāverim -illāverīs -illāverit -illāverīmus -illāverītis -illāverint
pluperfect -illāvissem -illāvissēs -illāvisset -illāvissēmus -illāvissētis -illāvissent
sigmatic aorist1 -illāssim -illāssīs -illāssīt -illāssīmus -illāssītis -illāssint
passive present -iller -illēris,
-illētur -illēmur -illēminī -illentur
imperfect -illārer -illārēris,
-illārētur -illārēmur -illārēminī -illārentur
perfect -illātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect -illātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present -illā -illāte
future -illātō -illātō -illātōte -illantō
passive present -illāre -illāminī
future -illātor -illātor -illantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives -illāre -illāvisse -illātūrum esse -illārī,
-illātum esse -illātum īrī
participles -illāns -illātūrus -illātus -illandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
-illandī -illandō -illandum -illandō -illātum -illātū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to"). It is also attested as having a rare sigmatic future passive indicative form ("will have been"), which is not attested in the plural for any verb.
2The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.



  1. dative/ablative masculine/neuter singular of -illus


Alternative forms[edit]

  • -illa (with feminine nouns)


Inherited from Old Spanish -iello, from Latin -ellus, an extension of -lus.


  • IPA(key): (most of Spain and Latin America) /ˈiʝo/ [ˈi.ʝo]
  • IPA(key): (rural northern Spain, Andes Mountains) /ˈiʎo/ [ˈi.ʎo]
  • IPA(key): (Buenos Aires and environs) /ˈiʃo/ [ˈi.ʃo]
  • IPA(key): (elsewhere in Argentina and Uruguay) /ˈiʒo/ [ˈi.ʒo]

  • (most of Spain and Latin America) Rhymes: -iʝo
  • (rural northern Spain, Andes Mountains) Rhymes: -iʎo
  • (Buenos Aires and environs) Rhymes: -iʃo
  • (elsewhere in Argentina and Uruguay) Rhymes: -iʒo

  • Syllabification: -i‧llo


-illo m (noun-forming suffix, plural -illos)

  1. added to masculine nouns to denote a diminutive form
    Synonyms: -ito, -cito, -cillo, -ecillo, -cecillo, -ico, -ín, -lito
    Coordinate term: -illa

Usage notes[edit]

  • If the noun has a final vowel (usually -o), it is dropped before adding -illo.
  • In most cases, -illo is used simply to indicate a small or endeared thing, without changing the basic meaning of the noun; however, in some cases, it is used to effect a greater change in meaning, such as bolsillo (pocket), from bolso (handbag, purse).
  • Different nouns tend to prefer different diminutive suffixes (see synonyms below), though some nouns accept multiple diminutives, and there is often regional or personal variation.
  • For masculine nouns ending in -a, there is some alternation between the gender-reflecting diminutive -illo and the ending-reflecting diminutive -illa. When the latter is used, -ill- may be considered an infix.

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]