-uus

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: uus, Uus, UUs, and uus-

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-uc. The declension has been massively reworked by analogy.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-uus (front vowel harmony variant -yys)

  1. Forms nouns from adjectives, expressing a quality.
    -uus
    punainen (red)punaisuus (redness)
    nerokas (ingenious)nerokkuus (ingenuity)
    -yys
    pyhä (holy)pyhyys (holiness)
    pitkä (long)pituus (length) *not pitkyys
    -us
    hauras (brittle)hauraus (brittleness)
    kaunis (beautiful)kauneus (beauty)
    komea (handsome)komeus (handsomeness)
    -ys
    leveä (wide)leveys (width)

Usage notes[edit]

As a main rule, the suffix is added to the stem of the adjective, replacing any final vowel:

The stem usually remains in the strong grade, but some exceptions remain as evidence of the original short vowel. In particular, all derivatives based on comparatives show the weak grade, e.g. alempi (lower)*alemmus > alemmuus (lowerness), rather than ˣalempuus.

As noted above, the suffix additionally appears shortened to -us whenever it is preceded by a second vowel. Note that this includes contracted long vowels, as in *harmaɣa > harmaa (gray)harmaus (grayness). Derivatives from adjectives ending in -is may in some cases show an unexpected alternation to -e-, as in the above-seen kauneus in place of expected ˣkaunius.

Some exceptions to this overall scheme occur, e.g. äiti (mother)äitiys (motherhood), in place of expected ˣäityys. Very rarely, both allomorphs may even occur in parallel, e.g. lapsi (child)lapsuus (childhood; period of life), yet lapseus (childhood; state of being a child).

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -uus (Kotus type 40/kalleus, t-d gradation)
nominative -uus -uudet
genitive -uuden -uuksien
partitive -uutta -uuksia
illative -uuteen -uuksiin
singular plural
nominative -uus -uudet
accusative nom. -uus -uudet
gen. -uuden
genitive -uuden -uuksien
partitive -uutta -uuksia
inessive -uudessa -uuksissa
elative -uudesta -uuksista
illative -uuteen -uuksiin
adessive -uudella -uuksilla
ablative -uudelta -uuksilta
allative -uudelle -uuksille
essive -uutena -uuksina
translative -uudeksi -uuksiksi
instructive -uuksin
abessive -uudetta -uuksitta
comitative -uuksineen
Possessive forms of -uus (type kalleus)
possessor singular plural
1st person -uuteni -uutemme
2nd person -uutesi -uutenne
3rd person -uutensa

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hakulinen, Lauri. 1941–2000. Suomen kielen rakenne ja kehitys ('The Structure and Development of the Finnish Language'). Helsinki: Otava/Helsingin yliopisto.

Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the Proto-Indo-European suffix *-wós‚ from the perfect active participle suffix *-wōs.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-uus

  1. forms adjectives on verbal stems
    contiguus, succiduus, vacuus

Usage notes[edit]

  • Originally forming the perfect active participle, as in ambiguus (having wandered), mortuus (having died), vacuus (having been empty).
  • The form -vus is used after vowels, l, and r, and -uus after all other other consonants, with the exception of qu. In this last case, the form -us is used.

Declension[edit]

First/second-declension adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -uus -ua -uum -uī -uae -ua
Genitive -uī -uae -uī -uōrum -uārum -uōrum
Dative -uō -uō -uīs
Accusative -uum -uam -uum -uōs -uās -ua
Ablative -uō -uā -uō -uīs
Vocative -ue -ua -uum -uī -uae -ua

Derived terms[edit]