kova

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See also: kõva

Finnish[edit]

(index k/o)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

Adjective[edit]

kova (comparative kovempi, superlative kovin)

  1. hard (of an object, resistant to pressure)
  2. strict, harsh, severe, unfriendly, hard, stern, brutal (of behavior or character)
  3. tough, hard (demanding a lot of effort to endure)
  4. strong, loud, hard, heavy, severe (having a high impact or influence, often translated as the adverb very in translating an accompanying noun as an adjective)
    Minulla on kova jano.
    I'm very thirsty.
    Radio on liian kovalla. (not to be confused with the adverb kovaa)
    The radio is too loud.
  5. live (of ammunition)
    Tappaja väitti, että hän ei tiennyt aseen olevan ladattu kovilla panoksilla.
    The killer claimed that he didn't know that the weapon was loaded with live rounds.
  6. high, great, ambitious, remarkable
    Pidän ilmapiiristä, mutta heidän hintansa ovat aika kovat.
    I like the atmosphere, but their prices are quite high.
    kova kysyntä
    great demand
    Heillä on kovat suunnitelmat - ensin valloitetaan Pohjoismaiden markkinat, sitten koko maailma.
    They have ambitious plans – first the Nordic market, then the whole world. / They have ambitious plans to first conquer the Nordic market and then the whole world. (literally: first the Nordic market will be conquered)
  7. eager, devoted
    Hän on kova kalamies.
    He's an eager fisherman.
    Hän on kova Kärppä-fani.
    He's a devoted fan of the Kärpät.
  8. tough (rowdy or rough)
    Hän on kova kaveri.
    He is a tough guy.
  9. hard, hardworking
    Hän on kova työmies.
    He's a hard worker.
  10. excellent, great, well-known
    Alle kaksi tuntia on kova aika maratonilla.
    Less than two hours is an excellent time on a marathon.
    Niin, mutta olenkin kovassa kunnossa. Olen kova nimi urheilupiireissä.
    Yes, but I'm in a great shape. I'm a well-known name in the sports circles.
  11. (physics, ferromagnetism) hard (of material: having the capability of being a permanent magnet)
  12. (finance) unregulated, market-rate, unsubsidized, hard; special uses, see usexes:
    ~ valuutta : hard currency (globally traded currency that is expected to serve as a reliable and stable store of value)
    ~ raha : unsubsidized financing; especially as opposite to aravalaina (type of subsidized loan for social housing)
  13. (of light) harsh, hard (intensive and creating disagreeable and abrupt contrasts in colour or shading)
  14. (of water) hard (high on dissolved calcium and other minerals)
  15. (phonetics) hard, unvoiced (pronounced without using the vocal cords)
  16. (vulgar) hard (of a man, sexually aroused)
  17. (pornography) hard, hardcore
    kova porno
    harcore pornography

Declension[edit]

Inflection of kova (Kotus type 10/koira, no gradation)
nominative kova kovat
genitive kovan kovien
partitive kovaa kovia
illative kovaan koviin
singular plural
nominative kova kovat
accusative nom. kova kovat
gen. kovan
genitive kovan kovien
kovainrare
partitive kovaa kovia
inessive kovassa kovissa
elative kovasta kovista
illative kovaan koviin
adessive kovalla kovilla
ablative kovalta kovilta
allative kovalle koville
essive kovana kovina
translative kovaksi koviksi
instructive kovin
abessive kovatta kovitta
comitative kovine

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈkovɒ]
  • Hyphenation: ko‧va

Noun[edit]

kova (plural kovák)

  1. flint

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative kova kovák
accusative kovát kovákat
dative kovának kováknak
instrumental kovával kovákkal
causal-final kováért kovákért
translative kovává kovákká
terminative kováig kovákig
essive-formal kovaként kovákként
essive-modal
inessive kovában kovákban
superessive kován kovákon
adessive kovánál kováknál
illative kovába kovákba
sublative kovára kovákra
allative kovához kovákhoz
elative kovából kovákból
delative kováról kovákról
ablative kovától kováktól
Possessive forms of kova
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. kovám kováim
2nd person sing. kovád kováid
3rd person sing. kovája kovái
1st person plural kovánk kováink
2nd person plural kovátok kováitok
3rd person plural kovájuk kováik

Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

Adjective[edit]

kova

  1. hard

Karelian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

Adjective[edit]

kova

  1. hard

Kilivila[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

kova

  1. fire

References[edit]


Lithuanian[edit]

Lithuanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia lt

Etymology[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (ko) IPA(key): [koːˈvɐ]
  • (va) IPA(key): [ˈkǒːvɐ]

Noun[edit]

kovà f (plural kõvos) stress pattern 4 [2]

  1. fight, struggle

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brückner, Aleksander (1927), “kuć”, in Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego [Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language] (in Polish), Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, published 1985, page 279
  2. ^ “kova” in Balčikonis, Juozas et al. (1954), Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas. Vilnius: Valstybinė politinės ir mokslinės literatūros leidykla.

Ludian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

Adjective[edit]

kova

  1. hard

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Turkic [Term?].

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈkɔvɑ]
  • Hyphenation: ko‧va

Noun[edit]

kova (definite accusative kovayı, plural kovalar)

  1. bucket

Declension[edit]


Veps[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *kova.

Adjective[edit]

kova

  1. hard (not soft)
  2. solid
  3. stiff, rigid
  4. strong
  5. strict, stern
  6. harsh, severe

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of kova
nominative sing. kova
genitive sing. kovan
partitive sing. kovad
partitive plur. kovid
singular plural
nominative kova kovad
accusative kovan kovad
genitive kovan koviden
partitive kovad kovid
essive-instructive kovan kovin
translative kovaks kovikš
inessive kovas koviš
elative kovaspäi kovišpäi
illative  ? kovihe
adessive koval kovil
ablative kovalpäi kovilpäi
allative kovale kovile
abessive kovata kovita
comitative kovanke kovidenke
prolative kovadme kovidme
approximative I kovanno kovidenno
approximative II kovannoks kovidennoks
egressive kovannopäi kovidennopäi
terminative I  ? kovihesai
terminative II kovalesai kovilesai
terminative III kovassai
additive I  ? kovihepäi
additive II kovalepäi kovilepäi

References[edit]