-kas

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See also: kas, kAS, kAs, kaš, kaş, Kaş, kas-, and -käs

Estonian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-k'as. Cognate to Finnish -kas.

Suffix[edit]

-kas (genitive -ka, partitive -kat)

  1. Derives adjectives from some nouns
    sisu "content" → sisukas "meaningful, profound"
    vaim "spirit, mind" → vaimukas "witty"
    nali "joke" → naljakas "funny"
  2. Derives nouns, often colloquial.
    padu- "huge" → padukas "heavy rain"
    juur "root" → juurikas "root, rhizome"

Derived terms[edit]


Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-k'as. Equivalent to -kka +‎ -as.

Suffix[edit]

-kas (front vowel harmony variant -käs)

  1. -y, -ful; a suffix that can be used to turn many, but not all, nouns into adjectives that indicate abundant presence of the thing expressed by the noun.
    kukka (flower)kukikas (flower-patterned)
    raha (money)rahakas (lucrative)
    taito (skill)taidokas (skilful)
    voima (power)voimakas (powerful)
    ääni (noise)äänekäs (noisy)
    harteet (shoulders)harteikas (broad-shouldered)
    nenä (nose)nenäkäs (saucy)
  2. Forms nouns chacterized by an abundance of the base word.
    asia (errand, matter)asiakas (customer)
    ora (thorn)orakas (hydnoid mushroom)
  3. -ish; a suffix that forms moderative adjectives; rare in standard Finnish.
    kuiva (dry)kuivakas (dryish)
  4. Forms nouns indicating a concept associated with the base word from nouns or verbs.
    juuri (root)juurikas (root vegetable)
    pudota (to fall)pudokas (fallen object)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of -kas (Kotus type 41*A/vieras, kk-k gradation)
nominative -kas -kkaat
genitive -kkaan -kkaiden
-kkaitten
partitive -kasta -kkaita
illative -kkaaseen -kkaisiin
singular plural
nominative -kas -kkaat
accusative nom. -kas -kkaat
gen. -kkaan
genitive -kkaan -kkaiden
-kkaitten
partitive -kasta -kkaita
inessive -kkaassa -kkaissa
elative -kkaasta -kkaista
illative -kkaaseen -kkaisiin
-kkaihinrare
adessive -kkaalla -kkailla
ablative -kkaalta -kkailta
allative -kkaalle -kkaille
essive -kkaana -kkaina
translative -kkaaksi -kkaiksi
instructive -kkain
abessive -kkaatta -kkaitta
comitative -kkaine
Possessive forms of -kas (type vieras)
Rare. Only used with substantive adjectives.
possessor singular plural
1st person -kkaani -kkaamme
2nd person -kkaasi -kkaanne
3rd person -kkaansa

Derived terms[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

When the suffix is added to the noun, the stem changes in accordance with consonant gradation. The suffix is added to the plural stem on most hame-type nouns and in many cases of other non-mass concrete nouns, e.g. mainemaineikas instead of **maineekas, kukkakukikas instead of **kukakas.

Anagrams[edit]


Ingrian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finnic *-k'as. Cognates include Finnish -kas and Estonian -kas.

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

-kas (front vowel variant -käs)

  1. Forms adjectives describing an abundancy of a noun; -ful
    kala (fish) + ‎-kas → ‎kalakas (rich in fish)

Declension[edit]

Declension of -kas (type 2/patsas, kk-k gradation)
singular plural
nominative -kas -kkaat
genitive -kkaan -kkain
partitive -kasta, -kast -kkaita
illative -kkaasse -kkaisse
inessive -kkaas -kkais
elative -kkaast -kkaist
allative -kkaalle -kkaille
adessive -kkaal -kkail
ablative -kkaalt -kkailt
translative -kkaaks -kkaiks
essive -kkaanna, -kkaan -kkainna, -kkain
exessive1) -kkaant -kkaint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Soikkola declension of -kas (type 2/kalakas, kk-k gradation)
singular plural
nominative -kas -kkahat
-kkaat
genitive -kkahan -kkahhiin
partitive -kasta -kkahhia
illative -kkahasse -kkahisse
inessive -kkahas -kkahis
elative -kkahast -kkahist
allative -kkahalle -kkahille
adessive -kkahal -kkahil
ablative -kkahalt -kkahilt
translative -kkahaks -kkahiks
essive -kkahhaan -kkahhiin
exessive1) -kkahhant -kkahhint
1) Obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[1], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 54