-si-

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Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally from the plural stem of -nen.

Interfix[edit]

-si-

  1. Used in adverbs between a noun (usually referring to an article of clothing) and an external location case ending (adessive, allative, ablative) to refer to a state where one is (only) wearing that clothing.
  2. Used in adverbs between a noun and an external location case ending with a more generic diminutive meaning.

Usage notes[edit]

-si- is always placed before the case ending, but it is basically arbitrary whether it attaches to the singular or plural stem of any given word. It appears that it is always attached to the strong stem for nouns that have gradation. Even further, in some cases it is preceded by an unetymological -i-, probably extracted by analogy from actually regular plural stems. The nominal form obtained as a result of attaching the locative case ending is considered to be in plural.

Only cases where the corresponding -nen derivative does not exist as an independent noun can be considered to use -si-, which has developed from the inflected forms of those derivatives by analogy, specifically.

Derived terms[edit]

Swahili[edit]

Infix[edit]

-si-

  1. (with suffix -e) negative subjunctive marker
    ili nisilesuch that I would not eat
    1. negative imperative marker
      wasikisomethey should not read it
  2. negative relative marker
    mtoto asiyekujathe child who does not come
  3. Only used in -singe- and -singali-, negative marker for the conditional mood

Conjugation[edit]

See also[edit]

Swahili TAM markers
Initial
Positive infinitive ku-/kw-1
Negative infinitive kuto-
Habitual hu-1
Telegrammic ka-1
Final
General (positive indicative) -a
Positive subjunctive -e
Negative present -i
Second person plural -ni
Infix position
positive subject concord
Positive past -li-
Positive present -na-
Positive future -ta-
Negative subjunctive -si-1
Positive present conditional -nge-
Negative present conditional -singe-
Positive past conditional -ngali-
Negative past conditional -singali-
Gnomic -a-1
Perfect -me-
"Already" past -lisha-
"Already" present -mesha-/-sha-
"If/When" -ki-1
"If not" -sipo-
Consecutive -ka-1
Infix position
negative subject concord
Negative past -ku-1
Negative future -ta-
"Not yet" -ja-1
Negative present conditional -nge-
Negative past conditional -ngali-
Relative
Past -li-
Present -na-
Future -taka-
Negative -si-
1 Can take stress and therefore does not require -ku-/-kw- in monosyllabic verbs.