Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kes-

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Root[edit]

*kes-[1][2]

  1. to scrape, comb

Extensions[edit]

  • *ks-dʰh₁-[1]
    • *kés-dʰh₁-eh₂[3]
      • Proto-Germanic: *hezdǭ (flax fibers)[3]
        • Proto-West Germanic: *heʀdā (see there for further descendants)
    • *kos-dʰh₁-ós[3]
      • Proto-Germanic: *hazdaz (hair)[3] (see there for further descendants)

Derived terms[edit]

  • *kés-ti ~ *ks-énti (athematic root present)[2][3][4]
  • *ks-néw-ti ~ *ks-nw-énti (*néw-present)[1][5][6] (see there for further descendants)
  • *kes-/*kos-yé-ti (yé-fientive)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *késtei
      • Lithuanian: kàsti
      • Proto-Slavic: *česàti (to scratch, comb)[7] (see there for further descendants)
  • *kos-éye-ti (*éye-causative)[3]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kasīˀtei
      • Proto-Slavic: *kositi (to mow) (see there for further descendants)
  • *kés-r̥ ~ *ks-én-s
    • *ksen- (reanalysed root)[8][9]
    • [Term?]
      • >? Proto-Albanian: *kasra > *kāra[10]
        • Albanian: korr (to harvest, reap)
    • *ke-ks-r-éh₂ (with reduplication of the root)
      • >? Proto-Celtic: *kīsrā (comb) (possibly < *kēsrā < *kexsrā)[11]
        • Old Irish: cír (see there for further descendants)
    • *kes-ró-m
      • >? Proto-Germanic: *hērą (hair) (see there for further descendants)
  • *kés-s ~ *ks-és
    • *kses- (reanalysed root)[1]
      • *ksés-ti (athematic present)[1][12]
        • Proto-Hellenic: *kséhō
          • Ancient Greek: ξέω (xéō, to shave, carve, smooth, polish)
      • *kses-tós (verbal adjective)
  • *kés-u-s ~ *ks-éw-s
  • *kos-éh₂[3]
    • Proto-Albanian: *kaxā (plaited hair)[13]
      • Albanian: kezë (woman’s head-dress, bonnet, hair-net)
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kasā́ˀ[14]
      • Latvian: kasa (braid)
      • Lithuanian: kasà (braid)
      • Old Prussian: kexti (braided hair)
      • Proto-Slavic: *kosà (hair, braided hair) (see there for further descendants)
    • *kos-eh₂-yé-ti ~ *kos-eh₂-yónti[2]
  • *kós-mo-s[16]
  • (possibly)[17] *kos-ó-s

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Pokorny, Julius (1959), “kes-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 585
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*kes-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 357
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*hezdōn-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 225
  4. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008), “kiš-zi”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 557-558
  5. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “novācula”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 414-415
  6. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*snawwa-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 461
  7. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “kasti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 231
  8. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959), “ks-en-”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 585
  9. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*ksen-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 371
  10. ^ Orel, Vladimir (1998), “korr”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden, Boston, Cologne: Brill, →ISBN, page 192
  11. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*kīsrā”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 204
  12. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “ξέω”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1035
  13. ^ Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[1], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 61
  14. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “kasa”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 230-231
  15. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015), “kasyti”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 231
  16. 16.0 16.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*kosmъ”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 238-239
  17. 17.0 17.1 Orel, Vladimir E. (2000) A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian[2], Leiden, Boston, Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 61