meng-

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Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay meng-, Proto-Malayic *mAN-, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *maN-, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *maN-, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *maN-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /məŋ/
  • Hyphenation: meng

Prefix[edit]

meng- (active meng-, passive di-)

  1. transitive agent focus, frequently but erroneously called "active voice", for AVO word order.
    • mengatur (to arrange; arranges; arranging)
    • membaca (to read; reads; reading)
    • mencabut (to remove; removes; removing)
    • menderma (to donate; donates; donating)
    • mengelak (to avoid; avoids; avoiding)
    • memahami (to understand; understands; understanding)
    • memfitnah (to lie; lies; lying (about someone))
    • menggali (to dig; digs; digging)
    • menghantar (to deliver; delivers; delivering)
    • mengikat (to tie; ties; tying)
    • menjolok (to poke; pokes; poking)
    • mengira (to count; counts; counting)
    • melamar (to propose; proposes; proposing)
    • memakan (to eat; eats; eating)
    • menyanyi (to sing; sings; singing)
    • mengolah (to edit; edits; editing)
    • memukul (to hit; hits; hitting)
    • merawat (to treat; treats; treating)
    • menyapu (to sweep; sweep; sweeping)
    • menambah (to add; adds; adding)
    • mengurus (to manage; manages; managing)
    • mengebom (to bomb; bombs; bombing)
  2. intransitive verbal prefix of a nominal root
    1. to become as the root
    2. to function as the root, or to become similar as the root
    3. to consume the root
      • merokok (to consume a cigarette, to smoke)
    4. to go toward the root
      • melaut (to go toward sea, to sail)
    5. to gather the root
    6. to sound as the root
  3. intransitive verbal prefix of a adjectival root
    1. to become as the root
    2. to give effect as the root

Usage notes[edit]

  • Along with the prefix peng-, this prefix are affected by initial consonant mutations.
  • The standard forms are shown in the list below:
    • me- (IPA(key): /mə/, before initials of /l/, /m/, /n/, /ɲ/ ⟨ny⟩, /ŋ/ ⟨ng⟩, /r/, /w/ and /j/ ⟨y⟩.)
    • mem- (IPA(key): /məm/, before initials of /b/, /p/ or /f/, except initial per-, will remove initial /p/)
    • men- (IPA(key): /mən/, before initials of /t͡ʃ/ ⟨c⟩, /d/, /d͡ʒ/ ⟨j⟩, /ʃ/ ⟨sy⟩, /t/, and /z/, will remove initial /t/.)
    • meng- (IPA(key): /məŋ/, before initials of /g/, /h/, /k/ and all vowels /a/, /e/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /u/, will sometimes remove initial /k/.)
    • menge- (IPA(key): /məŋə/, before monosyllabic roots.)
    • meny- (IPA(key): /məɲ/, before initials of /s/, will remove initial /s/.)
  • The colloquial forms are shown, because of Javanese n-, in the list below:
  • For initial removal details, see kaidah KPST.
  • For the word kaji has two prefixed forms, (regular) mengaji and (irregular) mengkaji, which have slightly different meanings. The former means "to read Quran", while the latter means "to study".
  • For euphonic reasons, meng- before the verb kesal are non-existent and instead suppleted by etymologically-related sesal (→ menyesal).

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Malay[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayic *mAN-, from Proto-Malayo-Chamic *maN-, from Proto-Malayo-Sumbawan *maN-, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *maN-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (before /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /ɲ/, /r/, /w/, /y/) /mə/
  • IPA(key): (before /b/, /p/, /f/) /məm/
  • IPA(key): (before /t͡ʃ/, /d/, /d͡ʒ/, /t/, /z/) /mən/
  • IPA(key): (before /ɡ/, /h/, /k/, vowels) /məŋ/
  • IPA(key): (before /s/) /məɲ/
  • IPA(key): (before monosyllabic roots) /məŋə/

Prefix[edit]

meng- (Jawi spelling مڠـ‎)

  1. agent focus, frequently but erroneously called "active voice", for AVO word order.
    • meng- + ‎atur → ‎mengatur (to arrange; arranges; arranging)
    • mem- + ‎baca → ‎membaca (to read; reads; reading)
    • men- + ‎cabut → ‎mencabut (to remove; removes; removing)
    • men- + ‎derma → ‎menderma (to donate; donates; donating)
    • meng- + ‎elak → ‎mengelak (to avoid; avoids; avoiding)
    • mem- + ‎ahami → ‎memahami (to understand; understands; understanding)
    • mem- + ‎fitnah → ‎memfitnah (to lie; lies; lying (about someone))
    • meng- + ‎gali → ‎menggali (to dig; digs; digging)
    • meng- + ‎hantar → ‎menghantar (to deliver; delivers; delivering)
    • meng- + ‎ikat → ‎mengikat (to tie; ties; tying)
    • men- + ‎jolok → ‎menjolok (to poke; pokes; poking)
    • meng- + ‎ira → ‎mengira (to count; counts; counting)
    • me- + ‎lamar → ‎melamar (to propose; proposes; proposing)
    • me- + ‎makan → ‎memakan (to eat; eats; eating)
    • me- + ‎nyanyi → ‎menyanyi (to sing; sings; singing)
    • meng- + ‎olah → ‎mengolah (to edit; edits; editing)
    • mem- + ‎ukul → ‎memukul (to hit; hits; hitting)
    • me- + ‎rawat → ‎merawat (to treat; treats; treating)
    • meny- + ‎apu → ‎menyapu (to sweep; sweep; sweeping)
    • men- + ‎ambah → ‎menambah (to add; adds; adding)
    • meng- + ‎urus → ‎mengurus (to manage; manages; managing)
    • menge- + ‎bom → ‎mengebom (to bomb; bombs; bombing)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (before l, m, n, ng, ny, r, w and y), meng- will be written as me-.
  • (before b and f), meng- will be written as mem-.
  • (before p and rarely f), meng- will be written as mem- and will require the removal of the first p or f.
  • (before c, d, j and z), meng- will be written as men-.
  • (before t), meng- will be written as men- and will require the removal of the first t.
  • (before g and h), meng- remains written as meng-.
  • (before k), meng- remains written as meng- and will require the removal of the first k.
  • (before s), meng- will be written as meny- and will require the removal of the first s.
  • (before monosyllabic roots) meng- will be written as menge-.