per-

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English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin per and per-.

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. (non-productive) In verbs: denoting the sense "through", as in perforate.
  2. (non-productive) In verbs: denoting the sense "thoroughly", as in perfect.
  3. (non-productive) In verbs: denoting the sense "to destruction", as in pervert.
  4. (non-productive) In adjectives and adverbs: denoting the sense "extremely", as in perfervid.
  5. (chemistry) Forming nouns and adjectives denoting the maximum proportion of one element in a compound, as in peroxide.
  6. (chemistry) Added to the name of an element in a polyatomic ion to denote the number of atoms of that element (usually four).
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Old French per (modern French par).

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. (non-productive) Denoting the sense "by" or "per", as in perchance or perhaps.

Anagrams[edit]


Asturian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin per-.

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. used to make superlatives of adjectives and adverbs
    perguapu
    very beautiful
    perblancu
    very white
    perbién
    very well
    perlloñe
    very far

See also[edit]


Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Back-formation from per.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [per]
  • Hyphenation: per

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. denotes that the action expressed by the root becomes a means to attain a goal
    per- + ‎labori (to work) → ‎perlabori (to earn)
    per- + ‎ludi (to play) → ‎perludi (to win)
    per- + ‎flati (to flatter) → ‎perflati (to coax)

Derived terms[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin per-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. per-

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin per (through).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. (chemistry) per-

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tótfalusi, István. Idegenszó-tár: Idegen szavak értelmező és etimológiai szótára (’A Storehouse of Foreign Words: an explanatory and etymological dictionary of foreign words’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Malay per-, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *paʀ. Cognate with Tagalog pag-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [pər-]
  • Hyphenation: pêr

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. causative voice imperative mood intransitive verb prefix of a transitive verb
    per- + ‎buat (to do [something]) → ‎perbuat (do [something])
  2. causative voice imperative mood intransitive verb prefix of a adjective
    per- + ‎besar (big) → ‎perbesar (make bigger something big)
  3. imperative mood transitive verb of a noun: treat the object as [base], take the object as [base]
    per- + ‎istri (wife) → ‎peristri (take as wife, marry)
  4. Used to form nouns from verbs conjugated with ber-
    per- + ‎ajar (to teach) → ‎pelajar (learner)
    per- + ‎kerja (to work) → ‎pekerja (worker)

Usage notes[edit]

  • pe- is used in word with initial /r/ or word with final /-ər-/ in first syllable
    • However, some words that don't have /-ər-/ used this suffix inconsistently (per- + desa + -an > pedesaan). A few words change the first consonant in analogy to the unrelated suffix peng- (per- + perkosa + -an > pemerkosaan).
  • pel- is used in word ajar and its derivatives.

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *peri-. Related to per (through).

Prefix[edit]

per-

  1. Used to make adjectives or verbs that are "very" something.
    magnus (great, large)permagnus (very great, very large)
    multī (many)permultī (very many)
  2. Used to form verbs that are intensive or completive, conveying the idea of doing something all the way through or entirely.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Austronesian *paR- (divide into x (x = numeral)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

per- (Jawi spelling ڤر‎)

  1. abstraction, place, goal, result
    PerlawananMatch (game)
  2. divied by X numeral
    Satu perduaOne divided by two
  3. each, per
    40 km per jam40 km per hour
    Synonyms: tiap-tiap, se-

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Indonesian: per
  • Indonesian: per-

Further reading[edit]