大人

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Chinese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

 
big; great; huge; large; major; wide; deep; oldest; eldest; doctor
man; person; people
simp. and trad.
(大人)
alternative forms 大儂大侬 Min Nan
anagram 人大

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

大人

  1. adult; grown-up
    萬聖節裝扮不是大人專利那些糖果小孩裝扮可以十分出色 [MSC, trad.]
    万圣节装扮不是大人专利那些糖果小孩装扮可以十分出色 [MSC, simp.]
    Wànshèngjié zhuāngbàn bùshì dàrén de zhuānlì, nàxiē pāi mén tǎo tángguǒ de xiǎohái zhuāngbàn yě kěyǐ shífēn chūsè! [Pinyin]
    Halloween costumes are not just for adults - the costumes of children who ask for candy can also be extraordinary!
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

 
big; great; huge; large; major; wide; deep; oldest; eldest; doctor
man; person; people
simp. and trad.
(大人)
alternative forms 大儂大侬 Teochew
anagram 人大

Reborrowed from Japanese 大人 (taijin) for the historical Min Nan sense.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Initial () (7) (7) (38)
Final () (25) (94) (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dajH/ /daH/ /ȵin/
Li
Rong
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/dɑiH/ /dɑH/ /ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑiH/ /dʱɑH/ /ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dài duò rén
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ daH › ‹ dajH › ‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˁat-s/ (MC F!) /*lˁa[t]-s/ /*ni[ŋ]/
English big big (other) person

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/1
No. 1934 1939 10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daːds/ /*daːds/ /*njin/

Noun[edit]

大人

  1. (archaic) person of high rank (such as a ruler or noble)
  2. (honorific) Your Excellency; His Excellency (form of address to a higher-up)
  3. (Taiwanese Hokkien, dated or regional) sir (form of address used by ordinary citizens to address police officers during Taiwan's Japanese era)
  4. (Xiamen and Quanzhou Hokkien, religion) paper person, used as a scapegoat
Synonyms[edit]
  • (police officer):
Antonyms[edit]
  • (person of high rank): 小人 (xiǎorén)
Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (大人):

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
おとな
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
jukujikun

From late Old Japanese, more specifically Early Middle Japanese,[1] hypothesized from Proto-Japonic *ətəna. Appears in sources from the Heian period. Derivation unknown. Possibly related to obsolete verb おとなう (otonau, to visit someone; to make a sound, to speak aloud).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • 乙名 (only for the leader senses)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

大人(おとな) (otona

  1. an adult, a grown-up
    大人(おとな)(へ)の階段(かいだん)のぼる
    otona (e) no kaidan o noboru
    to ascend the staircase of (/towards) [being an] adult: to mature
    • 2010 December 8, Sorachi, Hideaki, “(だい)(さん)(びゃく)()(じゅう)()(くん) ()()あることは(さん)()ある [Lesson 322: Twice, Thrice That There Are]”, in (ぎん)(たま) [Silver Soul], volume 37 (fiction), Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN:
      まずはこのローションをかぶってだな
      Mazu wa kono rōshon o kabutte da na
      First we slap on some lotion
      ちょっと()てぇぇぇ‼ それどこの大人(おとな)のプールぅ⁉
      Chotto matēē‼ Sore doko no otona no pūrū⁉
      Hold o-o-o-on!! Are you tryna turn this place into an adult pool!?
  2. (uncommon, possibly archaic) a leader:
    1. an elder of a group or community
    2. in the late Muromachi period, the representative of a village or guild
    3. the head lady-in-waiting
    4. one's wife
    5. in the Edo period, a kind of civil servant working in Nagasaki
    6. the head servant

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うし
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
jukujikun

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, completed in 720 CE. Derivation unknown.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

大人(うし) (ushi

  1. (honorific) a lord, a landowner
  2. an honorific form of reference for a scholar or teacher, or one's own father
  3. an honorific form of reference for the addressee

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
たい
Grade: 1
じん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 大人 (dɑiH ȵʑjen, literally big, great + person). Compare modern Cantonese reading daai6 jan4, Min Nan tāi-jîn.

The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

大人(たいじん) (taijin

  1. a large person
  2. a giant
  3. an adult
  4. a person of high rank, a ruler or noble
  5. an honorific form of reference for a scholar or teacher, or one's own parent
  6. a daimyo
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
だい
Grade: 1
にん
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 大人 (dɑiH ȵiɪn, literally big, great + person). Compare modern Hakka reading thai-ngìn.

The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

大人(だいにん) (dainin

  1. an adult, a grown-up
  2. (Buddhism) the Buddhas and bodhisattvas

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

大人 (daein) (hangeul 대인)

  1. Hanja form? of 대인 (adult).
  2. noble man, gentleman, magnanimous man

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji in this term
うふ
Grade: 1
っちゅ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Etymology 1[edit]

From (ufu-, big) +‎ (tchu, person).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

大人 (hiragana うふっちゅ, rōmaji ufutchu)

  1. adult

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 1 Grade: 1
Irregular

Hypothesized from Proto-Ryukyuan *otona, from Proto-Japonic *ətəna. Cognate with Japanese 大人 (otona).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

大人 (hiragana うとぅな, rōmaji utuna)

  1. (literary) adult

References[edit]

  • うふっちゅ【大人】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.
  • ウフッチュ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
  • ウトゥナ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Noun[edit]

大人

  1. Hán tự form of đại nhân (noble man).