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U+7136, 然
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7136

[U+7135]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7137]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
然-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 86 +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 月大火 (BKF), four-corner 23333, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 675, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19149
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1086, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2213, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7136

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
然-bronze.svg 然-bigseal.svg 然-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rneːn
*njen
*njen
*njon, *njen
*njen
*njenʔ, *neːnʔ
*njenʔ, *ʔneːn
*neːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njen): phonetic (OC *njen, dog meat) + semantic (fire) – to burn. Also ideogrammic compound (會意). The derivative (OC *njen) stands for the original word in Modern Chinese.

Note that the upper left component is analyzed as (meat), and in the component it is drawn as a tilted (“moon”), appearing more like (“evening”) with an extra stroke; compare , .

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐan³⁵/
Harbin /ʐan²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
/ʐan⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐan⁵³/
/ʐan⁴²/ ~而
Xi'an /ʐã²⁴/
Xining /ʐã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐan⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/
Chengdu /zan³¹/
Guiyang /zan²¹/
Kunming /ʐã̠³¹/
Nanjing /ʐaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʐæ̃⁵⁵/
/ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐæ̃⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
Suzhou /zø¹³/
Hangzhou /zz̩ʷõ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /jin²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lian³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zin³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵian/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɛn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rán
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[n]a[n]/
English so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10756
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njen/

Definitions[edit]

  1. so; thus; in this manner; like this
    • /   ―  ránhòu  ―  then [lit. after things turn out this way]
    •   ―  rán  ―  or else, otherwise [lit. not so]
  2. Suffix forming adverbs, sometimes also adjectives, with an abstract meaning of “in the manner of, like”.
    • /   ―  xiǎnrán  ―  apparently, obviously
    •   ―  guǒrán  ―  as expected [lit. as a result]
    • 大物 / 大物  ―  pángrándàwù  ―  giant, something enormous [lit. a bigly big thing]
    • 長嘆 / 长叹  ―  kuìránchángtàn  ―  to sigh (with 喟 being an onomatopoeia)
  3. but

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. suffix after nouns to express likeness
  2. so, be as it is
  3. however (as shikashi)
  4. a certain thing

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぜん
Grade: 4
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyen, -like).

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji -zen)

  1. Indicates a state (no specific semantic content)

References[edit]

  • Halpern, Jack: New Japanese-English Character Dictionary -Kenkyusha 1990

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yeon) (hangeul , revised yeon, McCune-Reischauer yŏn, Yale yen)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(nhiên, nhen, nhơn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.