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U+7136, 然
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7136

[U+7135]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7137]

Translingual

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Stroke order
12 strokes
Stroke order

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 86, +8, 12 strokes, cangjie input 月大火 (BKF), four-corner 23333, composition ⿱⿰𱼀)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 675, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19149
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1086, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2213, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7136

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. ⿱犬一
alternative forms 𤉷
𤟙

𬊾
𤓉

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *njen) : phonetic (OC *njen, dog meat) + semantic (fire) – to burn. Also ideogrammic compound (會意会意) . The derivative (OC *njen) stands for the original word in Modern Chinese.

Note that the upper left component is analyzed as (meat), and in the component it is drawn as a tilted (“moon”), appearing more like (“evening”) with an extra stroke (𱼀); compare , .

Etymology

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A fusion of (OC *nja, *njas) with an element *-n which has a demonstrative meaning (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • riêng5 - Chaozhou;
  • riang5 - Shantou, Jieyang, Chenghai, Chaoyang.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐan³⁵/
Harbin /ʐan²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
/ʐan⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʐã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐan⁵³/
/ʐan⁴²/ ~而
Xi'an /ʐã²⁴/
Xining /ʐã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐan⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʐɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʐan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/
Chengdu /zan³¹/
Guiyang /zan²¹/
Kunming /ʐã̠³¹/
Nanjing /ʐaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʐæ̃⁵⁵/
/ʐən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʐɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ʐæ̃⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /zø²³/
Suzhou /zø¹³/
Hangzhou /zz̩ʷõ²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ian¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jin²¹/
Nanning /jin²¹/
Hong Kong /jɐn²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /lian³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /yoŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /iŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /ziaŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /zin³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nyen
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵian/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɛn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jin4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rán
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[n]a[n]/
English so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10756
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njen/

Definitions

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  1. Original form of (rán, “to burn”).
  2. a demonstrative that refers to a previous verbal clause
    Near-synonym: (shì)
    1. so; thus; in this manner; like this
        ―  ránhòu  ―  then (literally, “after things turn out this way”)
        ―  rán  ―  or else, otherwise (literally, “not so”)
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  Fēi rán yě. [Pinyin]  ―  It is not so. / That is not how it is.
    2. Suffix forming adverbs, sometimes also adjectives, with an abstract meaning of “in the manner of, like”.
        ―  xiǎnrán  ―  apparently, obviously
        ―  guǒrán  ―  as expected (literally, “as a result”)
      大物大物  ―  pángrándàwù  ―  giant, something enormous (literally, “a bigly big thing”)
      長嘆长叹  ―  kuìránchángtàn  ―  to sigh (with 喟 being an onomatopoeia)
  3. metaphors extracted from fossilizations of sense 2
    1. but
        ―  rán'ér  ―  but (literally, “(having said) that, and/but”)
    2. correct; right
      不以為不以为  ―  bùyǐwèirán  ―  to not regard as correct (literally, “not regarding (reality) as (being) that); to object
    3. to regard as correct; to agree
  4. (Teochew) to resemble; to be like

Usage notes

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This word is fossilized and cannot be used to form new expressions in Modern Chinese. In earlier Chinese, it could freely refer to any verb clause.

1910, Sun Tzu, chapter XI, in Lionel Giles, transl., 孫子兵法 = Sun Tzŭ on the Art of War: [], London: Luzac & Co., →OCLC, page 92:
29. 故善用兵譬如率
(literally, “So [the] good user [of] troops resembles like quickly [...] quickly [doing] that, i.e. using troops)
1910, Sun Tzu, chapter XI, in Lionel Giles, transl., 孫子兵法 = Sun Tzŭ on the Art of War: [], London: Luzac & Co., →OCLC, page 143:
58. 投之亡地然後存陷之死地然後生
Alternatively punctuated 投之亡地。後存。陷之死地。後生
(literally, “Throw them (the troops) [into] death land. After doing that [they will] survive. Sink them (the troops) [into] death land. After doing that [they will] live”)

With the alternative punctuation, the quote commands the reader to actually try this, which is somewhat reasonable. However in Classical Chinese, all pronouns, including this, can also used be topicalizers to merely continue the last clause but linguistically unfocus it instead of starting a new sentence. The topicalization interpretation is equal to the following:

*投之亡地後存。陷之死地後生

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. and; and then; and therefore
  2. so; if so; as it is; in that way
  3. however; but
  4. a certain thing; a sort of thing

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
ぜん
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (nyen, -like).

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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(ぜん) (-zen

  1. indicates a state (no specific semantic content)

References

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  • Halpern, Jack: New Japanese-English Character Dictionary -Kenkyusha 1990

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 그러할 (geureohal yeon))

  1. Hanja form? of (be as it is).

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: nhiên

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.