自然

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Chinese[edit]

 
from; self; oneself; since
 
correct; right; so; thus; like this; -ly
simp. and trad.
(自然)

Etymology[edit]

Wasei kango (和製漢語), from Japanese 自然 (しぜん) ‎(shizen)

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (自然, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (15)
Final: (15)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ziɪH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡zjɪH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡ziH/ /d͡zʱiH/
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (38)
Final: (77)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: rán
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵiᴇn/ /ȵiɛn/ /ȵʑjæn/ /ȵian/ /ȵiɛn/ /ȵʑĭɛn/ /ȵʑi̯ɛn/
Old Chinese pronunciation (自然, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ dzijH › /*s.[b]i[t]-s/ self (adv.)
rán ‹ nyen › /*[n]a[n]/ so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
17879 1 /*ɦljids/
10756 2 /*njen/

Noun[edit]

自然

  1. nature; the natural world

Adjective[edit]

自然

  1. natural; of or relating to nature
  2. natural; at ease; without strain

Usage notes[edit]

To describe things literally produced by nature, use the attributive 天然 (tiānrán) instead.

Adverb[edit]

自然

  1. naturally; in a natural manner
  2. naturally; of course; as a matter of course

Conjunction[edit]

自然

  1. admittedly

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (自然):

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ぜん
Grade: 4
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjectival noun[edit]

自然 ‎(-na inflection, hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. natural
  2. spontaneous

Inflection[edit]

Adverb[edit]

自然 ‎(hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. naturally
  2. spontaneously
  3. rarely
  4. coincidentally

Noun[edit]

自然 ‎(hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. nature
  2. spontaneity

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, ISBN 4095102535.

Okinawan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese 自然 ‎(shizen).

Noun[edit]

自然 ‎(hiragana しじん, romaji shijin)

  1. nature

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên, "nature"

Adjective[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên, "natural"

Adverb[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên, "naturally"