自然

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Chinese[edit]

 
from; self; oneself; since
 
correct; right; so; thus; like this; -ly
simp. and trad.
(自然)

Etymology[edit]

Wasei kango (和製漢語), from Japanese 自然 (しぜん) ‎(shizen)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (15) (38)
Final () (15) (77)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziɪH/ /ȵiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ziH/ /ȵiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjɪH/ /ȵʑjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ziH/ /ȵian/
Li
Rong
/d͡ziH/ /ȵiɛn/
Wang
Li
/d͡ziH/ /ȵʑĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱiH/ /ȵʑi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rán
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzijH › ‹ nyen ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.[b]i[t]-s/ /*[n]a[n]/
English self (adv.) so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 17879 10756
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljids/ /*njen/

Noun[edit]

自然

  1. nature; the natural world

Adjective[edit]

自然

  1. natural; of or relating to nature
  2. natural; at ease; without strain

Usage notes[edit]

To describe things literally produced by nature, use the attributive 天然 (tiānrán) instead.

Adverb[edit]

自然

  1. naturally; in a natural manner
  2. naturally; of course; as a matter of course

Conjunction[edit]

自然

  1. admittedly

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (自然):

Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ぜん
Grade: 4
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjectival noun[edit]

自然 ‎(-na inflection, hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. natural
  2. spontaneous

Inflection[edit]

Adverb[edit]

自然 ‎(hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. naturally
  2. spontaneously
  3. rarely
  4. coincidentally

Noun[edit]

自然 ‎(hiragana しぜん, romaji shizen)

  1. nature
  2. spontaneity

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, ISBN 4095102535.

Okinawan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with mainland Japanese 自然 ‎(shizen).

Noun[edit]

自然 ‎(hiragana しじん, romaji shijin)

  1. nature

Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this word

Noun[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên, "nature"

Adjective[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên, "natural"

Adverb[edit]

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên, "naturally"