天皇

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Chinese[edit]

day; sky; heaven emperor; surname
simp. and trad.
(天皇)
anagram 皇天
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Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “what is etymology of Chinese sence?”)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (6) (33)
Final () (85) (102)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () IV I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ɦwɑŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ɦʷɑŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ɦwaŋ/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ɣuɑŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ɣwɑŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān huáng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tiān huáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ then › ‹ hwang ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˁi[n]/ /*[ɢ]ʷˁaŋ/
English heaven sovereign

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 12387 12696
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰl'iːn/ /*ɡʷaːŋ/
Notes

Noun[edit]

天皇

  1. king of heaven; heavenly sovereign; (figuratively) emperor
  2. emperor or empress (regnant) of Japan

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic (天皇):

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
おう > のう
Grade: 6
goon
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/ten wau//tenwɔː//tenːɔː//tenːoː/

From Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ) with the original sense of “heavenly sovereign”.

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese. The ō reading for changes to as an instance of renjō (連声).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(てん)(のう) (tennōてんわう (tenwau)?

  1. an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
    (めい)(しょう)(てん)(のう)Meishō TennōEmpress Meishō
    (めい)()(てん)(のう)Meiji TennōEmperor Meiji
    Synonyms: 内の上 (uchi no ue), 皇天 (kōten), 内裏 (dairi), 天子 (tenshi), (mikado)
  2. (usually in Chinese contexts) an emperor, ruler, or other monarch with a heavenly mandate
    Synonym: 天子 (tenshi)
  3. (by extension) a person having a strength or profession in a particular field of study or expertise
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
こう
Grade: 6
kan’on
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/ten kʷau//tenkʷɔː//tenkɔː//tenkoː/

From Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(てん)(こう) (tenkōてんくわう (tenkwau)?

  1. (usually in Chinese contexts) an emperor, ruler, or other monarch with a heavenly mandate
    Synonym: 天子 (tenshi)

Proper noun[edit]

(てん)(こう) (Tenkōてんくわう (tenkwau)?

  1. (Chinese mythology) the first of the Three Sovereigns, possibly 伏羲 (Fukki, Fu Xi)
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
すべらぎ
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun
Alternative spelling

/sumeraɡi//suberaɡi/

Shift from sumeragi below, with the nasal /m/ becoming a plosive /b/.

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

Noun[edit]

天皇(すべらぎ) (suberagi

  1. (archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Citations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
すめらぎ
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun
Alternative spelling

⟨sume1ro2ki1 → */sumʲerəkʲi/ → */sumeraki//sumeraɡi/

Possibly a shift from Old Japanese 天皇 (sume1ro2ki1).

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

Noun[edit]

天皇(すめらぎ) (sumeragi

  1. (honorific, archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Citations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
すめらぎみ
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun

From (sumera-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (kimi, lord, mastersovereign). The kimi changes to gimi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

Noun[edit]

天皇(すめらぎみ) (sumeragimi

  1. (honorific, archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Citations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
すめらみこと
Grade: 1 Grade: 6
jukujikun
Alternative spelling
皇尊

From Old Japanese.

From (sumera-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (mikoto, Highness).

The kanji spelling is from tennō above.

Noun[edit]

天皇(すめらみこと) (sumeramikoto

  1. (honorific, archaic) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
    (はつ)馭天下之(くにしらす)天皇(すめらみこと)
    Hatsu Kunishirasu Sumeramikoto
    the First Founding Emperor
Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja in this term

Noun[edit]

天皇 (cheonhwang) (hangeul 천황)

  1. Hanja form? of 천황 (Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan).

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Possibly from (sume1ro2-, apophonic form of sume1ra-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (ki1mi1, lord, mastersovereign), with the final mi1 dropping due to poetic reasons.

The kanji spelling is an orthographic borrowing from Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

Noun[edit]

天皇 (sume1ro2ki1) (kana すめろき)

  1. (honorific) a sovereign who governs a region
  2. (by extension, honorific) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
  3. (by extension) the imperial lineage or family line
  4. the Emperor's reign
Citations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: 天皇 (sumeragi, suberagi)

Etymology 2[edit]

From (sume1ra-, prefix of praise and respect) +‎ (mi1ko2to2, Highness).

The kanji spelling is an orthographic borrowing from Middle Chinese 天皇 (MC tʰen ɦwɑŋ).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

天皇 (sume1rami1ko2to2) (kana すめらみこと)

  1. (honorific) a term of address for an Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan
Derived terms[edit]
Citations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:天皇.

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Hán tự in this term

Noun[edit]

天皇

  1. Hán tự form of thiên hoàng (Emperor or Empress (regnant) of Japan).