English [ edit ]
Etymology [ edit ]
Middle English adressen ( “ to raise erect, adorn ” ), from Old French adrecier ( “ to straighten, address ” ) (modern French ), from adresser (from a- Latin ad ( “ to ” )) + (modern drecier French dresser ( “ to straighten, arrange ” )), from Vulgar Latin , from *dīrectiō Latin dīrēctus ( “ straight or right ” ), from the verb , itself from dīrigō regō ( “ to govern, to rule ” ). Cognate with Spanish aderezar ( “ to garnish; dress (food); to add spices ” ).
Pronunciation [ edit ]
enPR: ə-drĕsʹ, ădʹrĕs, IPA (: key) /əˈdɹɛs/, /ˈæd.ɹɛs/ Verb:
-ɛs Hyphenation: ad‧dress
address ( plural )
( obsolete ) Guidance; help. [15th–17th c.]
( chiefly in the plural , now archaic ) A polite approach made to another person, especially of a romantic nature; an amorous advance. [from 16th c.]
1723, Richard Steele, The Lover and Reader, page 115:
[H]e was thus agreeable, and I neither insensible of his Perfections, nor displeased at his Addresses to me [… ] . A manner of speaking or writing to another;
language, style. [from 16th c.]
a man of pleasing or insinuating address A formal approach to a
sovereign, especially an official appeal or petition; later ( specifically ) a response given by each of the Houses of Parliament to the sovereign's speech at the opening of Parliament. [from 17th c.] An act of addressing oneself to a person or group; a
discourse or speech, or a record of this. [from 17th c.]
1887, Arthur Conan Doyle, A Study in Scarlet, VII:
Mr. Gregson, who had listened to this address with considerable impatience, could contain himself no longer. 1889, Margaret Oliphant, The Portrait
I watched her without knowing, with a prevision that she was going to address me, though with no sort of idea as to the subject of her address. A description of the location of a property, usually with at least a street name and number, name of a town, and now also a postal code; such a description as superscribed for direction on an envelope or letter.
[from 17th c.]
2013 June 14, Jonathan Freedland, “ Obama's once hip brand is now tainted”, in , volume 189, number 1, page 18: The Guardian Weekly Where we once sent love letters in a sealed envelope, or stuck photographs of our children in a family album, now such private material is despatched to servers and clouds operated by people we don't know and will never meet. Perhaps we assume that our name, address and search preferences will be viewed by some unseen pair of corporate eyes, probably not human, and don't mind that much. The President's address is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.
( by extension ) The property itself. [from 19th c.]
I went to his address but there was nobody there. ( computing ) A number identifying a specific storage location in computer memory; a string of characters identifying a location on the internet or other network; sometimes ( specifically ) an e-mail address. [from 20th c.]
The program will crash if there is no valid data stored at that address. Preparation.
( now rare ) Preparedness for some task; resourcefulness; skill, ability. [from 16th c.]
1777, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The School for Scandal, V.i:
This is one bad effect of a good Character—it invites applications from the unfortunate and there needs no small degree of address to gain the reputation of Benevolence without incurring the expence.—
1789, John Moore, Zeluco, Valancourt 2008, p. 129:
The warmth of Father Pedro's constitution had formerly drawn him into some scrapes from which it required all his address to disengage himself, and rendered him exceedingly cautious ever after. 1813, "Customs, Manners, and present Appearance of Constantinople", The New Annual Register, or General Repository of History, Politics, and Literature for the year 1812, p. 179 (Google preview):
At their turning-lathes, they employ their toes to guide the chisel; and, in these pedipulations, shew to Europeans a diverting degree of address.
( obsolete ) The act of getting ready; preparation. [17th–18th c.]
1671, John Milton, Samson Agonistes:
But now again she makes address to speak. ( golf , Scotland ) The act of bringing the head of the club up to the ball in preparation for swinging. [from 19th c.]
Derived terms [ edit ]
Descendants [ edit ]
Translations [ edit ]
manner of speaking to another
formal approach to a sovereign
act of addressing oneself to a person or group
خُطْبَة f ( ḵuṭba ), نِدَاء m ( nidāʾ ) Azerbaijani:
müraciət (az) Belarusian:
зваро́т m ( zvarót ), прамо́ва f ( pramóva ), звярта́нне n ( zvjartánnje ) Bulgarian:
обръще́ние (bg) n ( obrǎšténie ) Chinese:
Mandarin: 稱呼 , (zh) 称呼 (zh) ( chēnghū ) Czech:
proslov (cs) m Finnish:
puhe , (fi) puhuttelu (fi) French:
discours (fr) m Georgian:
მიმართვა ( mimartva ) German:
Ansprache (de) f Greek:
Ancient: πρόσρημα n ( prósrēma ) Hebrew:
פנייה f ( pni'a ) Hungarian:
beszéd , (hu) előadás (hu) Italian:
discorso (it) m Japanese:
演説 (ja) ( えんぜつ, enzetsu ), 講演 (ja) ( こうえん, kōen ) Korean:
연설(演說) (ko) ( yeonseol ) Latin:
alloquium n Macedonian:
обраќање n ( obraḱanje ) Malay:
alamat (ms) Malayalam:
അഭിസംബോധനം (ml) ( abhisambōdhanaṃ ) Maltese:
, diskors indirizz (mt) Oriya:
ସମ୍ବୋଧନ ( sômbodhônô ) Polish:
przemowa (pl) , f przemówienie (pl) n Portuguese:
discurso (pt) m Romanian:
adresare (ro) , f discurs (ro) n Russian:
обраще́ние (ru) n ( obraščénije ) Slovak:
oslovenie n Swedish:
tal (sv) n Telugu:
సంభోధన ( sambhōdhana ) Turkish:
sözel başvuru (tr) Ukrainian:
зве́рнення n ( zvérnennja ) Yiddish: אַדרעס f ( adres )
description of the location of a property; direction for correspondence
adres (af) Albanian:
adresë (sq) f Amharic:
አድራሻ ( ʾädraša ) Arabic:
عُنْوَان (ar) m ( ʿunwān ), عِنْوَان (ar) m ( ʿinwān )
عنوان m ( ʕinwān ) Moroccan Arabic: عنوان m ( ʕunwān ) Armenian:
հասցե (hy) ( hascʿe ) Asturian:
direición (ast) , f dirección (ast) f Azerbaijani:
ünvan (az) Bashkir:
адрес ( adres ) Basque:
а́дрэс m ( ádres ), а́драс m ( ádras ) Bengali:
ঠিকানা (bn) ( ṭhikana ), পাত্তা (bn) ( patta ) Bole:
адре́с (bg) m ( adrés ) Burmese:
လိပ်စာ ( lipca ) Catalan:
adreça (ca) f Chinese:
地址 ( dei 6 zi 2 ) Dungan:
дизы ( dizɨ ) Hakka:
地址 ( thi-chṳ́ ) Mandarin:
地址 (zh) ( dìzhǐ ) Min Dong:
地址 ( dî-cī ) Min Nan:
地址 (zh-min-nan) ( tē-chí/toē-chí ) Wu: 地址 ( di tsr ) Chukchi:
нымытван ( nymytvan ) Cornish:
trigva f Czech:
adresa (cs) f Danish:
adresse (da) c Dutch:
adres (nl) n Esperanto:
aadress (et) Faroese:
bústaður m Finnish:
osoite (fi) French:
adresse (fr) f Galician:
enderezo (gl) m Georgian:
მისამართი ( misamarti ) German:
Adresse (de) , f Anschrift (de) f Greek:
διεύθυνση (el) f ( diéfthynsi ) Haitian Creole:
adireshi (ha) Hebrew:
כְּתוֹבֶת (he) f ( k'tóvet ) Hindi:
पता (hi) m ( patā ) Hungarian:
cím , (hu) lakcím (hu) (literally “ residential address ” ), címzés (hu) Icelandic:
adressa f Ido:
adreso (io) Indonesian:
alamat (id) Irish:
seoladh m Italian:
indirizzo (it) m Japanese:
住所 (ja) ( じゅうしょ, jūsho ), 宛名 (ja) ( あてな, atena ) Kazakh:
мекенжай (kk) ( mekenjai ) Khmer:
អាសយដ្ឋាន (km) ( ʼaasaʼyatthaan ) Korean:
주소(住所) (ko) ( juso ) Kurdish:
Northern Kurdish: navnîşan , (ku) adres , (ku) inwan (ku) Kyrgyz:
адрес (ky) ( adres ) Ladino:
ທີ່ຢູ່ ( thī yū ) Latvian:
adrese f Lithuanian:
adresas (lt) m Luhya:
, enamba enamba ya posta Macedonian:
адре́са f ( adrésa ) Malagasy:
ladiresy (mg) Malay:
alamat (ms) Malayalam:
വിലാസം (ml) ( vilāsaṃ ), മേൽവിലാസം (ml) ( mēlvilāsaṃ ) Maltese:
indirizz (mt) m Maori:
, kāinga noho wāhi noho Mongolian:
Cyrillic: хаяг (mn) ( xajag ) Moore:
, belem zĩiga aderse Norman:
adresse f North Frisian:
( Mooring dialect ) önjschraft , f adräs ; f ( Föhr-Amrum ) uunskraft , f adres n Northern Sami:
adresse (no) m or f Nynorsk: adresse f Occitan:
adreça (oc) f Oriya:
ଠିକଣା (or) ( ṭhikôṇa ) Oromo:
آدرس m ( ādrás ), ادرس (ps) m ( adrés ) Persian:
آدرس (fa) ( âdres ), نشانی (fa) ( nešâni ) Plautdietsch:
Adrass f Polish:
adres (pl) m Portuguese:
endereço (pt) , m morada (pt) f Romanian:
adresă (ro) f Russian:
а́дрес (ru) m ( ádres ) Serbo-Croatian:
адрѐса , f на́слов m Roman: adrèsa (sh) , f náslov (sh) m Sinhalese:
ලිපිනය ( lipinaya ), ඇඩ්රස් එක ( æḍras eka ) Slovak:
adresa (sk) f Slovene:
naslov (sl) m Sorbian:
adresa f Upper Sorbian: adresa f Spanish:
dirección (es) f Swahili:
anwani , (sw) anuani (sw) Swedish:
adress (sv) c Tagalog:
, padalahan adres Tajik:
адрес ( adres ), сурога ( suroga ), нишони ( nišoni ), унвон (tg) ( unvon ) Tatar:
адрес (tt) ( adres ) Telugu:
చిరునామా (te) ( cirunāmā ) Thai:
ที่อยู่ (th) ( tîi-yùu ) Tibetan:
ཁ་བྱང ( kha byang ) Tigrinya:
ኣድራሻ ( ʾadraša ) Tok Pisin:
adres , (tr) unvan (tr) Turkmen:
adres (tk) Ukrainian:
адре́са (uk) f ( adrésa ) Urdu:
پتہ m ( pata ) Uyghur:
ئادرېس ( adrës ) Uzbek:
adres , (uz) manzil (uz) Vietnamese:
địa chỉ ( (vi) 地址 ) (vi) Volapük:
ladet (vo) Welsh:
cyfeiriad (cy) , m cyfeiriadau (cy) pl Yakut:
аадырыс ( aadırıs ) Yiddish:
אַדרעס m ( adres ) Zhuang: diegyouq
computing: location in computer memory
string of characters identifying a location on the internet or other network
preparedness for a task, skill
— See also translations at skill
taitavuus , (fi) taito , (fi) kyky (fi) French:
habileté (fr) German:
Fähigkeit (de) f Hungarian:
ügyesség , (hu) jártasság , (hu) hozzáértés , (hu) , gyakorlottság gyakorlat , (hu) készség , (hu) képesség (hu) Romanian:
îndemânare (ro) , f dexteritate (ro) , f abilitate (ro) f Russian:
ло́вкость (ru) f ( lóvkostʹ ) Turkish: beceri , (tr) hüner (tr)
(obsolete in English)
act of getting ready
— See also translations at preparation
Translations to be checked: "formal communication (are we missing a sense?)"
address ( third-person singular simple present , addresses present participle , addressing simple past and past participle addressed or ( obsolete ) )
( intransitive , obsolete ) To prepare oneself.
c. 1602, William Shakespeare, “ The Tragedie of Troylus and Cressida”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies ( [ … ] First Folio), London: [ … ] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, , OCLC 606515358 [Act II, scene ii]: Let us address to tend on Hector's heels.
( intransitive , obsolete ) To direct speech.
1697, Virgil, “Virgil’s Æneis, Book VII”, in John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis., London: [ … ] [ … ] Jacob Tonson, [ … ] , , OCLC 403869432 page 402: Young Turnus to the Beauteous Maid addreſs’d.
( transitive , obsolete ) To aim; to direct.
( transitive , obsolete ) To prepare or make ready.
1697, Virgil, “Virgil’s Æneis, Book X”, in John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis., London: [ … ] [ … ] Jacob Tonson, [ … ] , , OCLC 403869432 page 517: Then Turnus, from his chariot, leaping light, Addreſs’d himſelf on foot to ſingle fight. 1649, Jeremy Taylor, The Great Exemplar of Sanctity and Holy Life According to the Christian Institution
The five foolish virgins addressed themselves at the noise of the bridegroom's coming.
( transitive , reflexive ) To prepare oneself; to apply one's skill or energies (to some object); to betake.
( reflexive ) To direct one’s remarks ( to someone).
1701, Thomas Brown, Laconics, or New Maxims of State and Conversation, London: Thomas Hodgson, section 76, p. 103,
 In the Reign of King Charles the Second, a certain Worthy Divine at Whitehall, thus Address’d himself to the Auditory at the conclusion of his Sermon.
1876, Henry Martyn Robert, , Chicago: S.C. Griggs & Co., p. 66, Article V, Section 34, Robert’s Rules of Order
 When any member is about to speak in debate, he shall rise and respectfully address himself to “Mr. Chairman.”
( transitive , archaic ) To clothe or array; to dress.
Synonyms: , beclothe , dight ; put on see also Thesaurus: clothe 1566–67, John Jewel, “The Defence of the Apology”, in The Works of John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, volume 4, Cambridge: University of Cambridge, published 1845, page 651: Likewise Vincentius, and Petrus de Natalibus, and others your writers and recorders of fables could have told you that Tecla sometime addressed herself in man's apparel, and, had she not been forbidden by St Paul, would have followed him in company as a man.
( Discuss ( this sense) +) ( transitive ) To direct, as words ( to anyone or anything); to make, as a speech, petition, etc. ( to any audience).
1697, Virgil, “Dedication [of the Æneis ]”, in John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis., London: [ … ] [ … ] Jacob Tonson, [ … ] , , OCLC 403869432 page : though the young Heroe had addreſs’d his Prayers to him for his aſſiſtance He addressed some portions of his remarks to his supporters, some to his opponents.
( transitive ) To direct speech to; to make a communication to, whether spoken or written; to apply to by words, as by a speech, petition, etc., to speak to.
1712 (date written), [Joseph] Addison, , London: Cato, a Tragedy. [ … ] [ … ] J[acob] Tonson, [ … ] , published 1713, , Act I, scene ii, OCLC 79426475 page 2: Are not your orders to address the senate?
1724, Jonathan Swift, , Drapier's Letters
3 The representatives of the nation in parliament, and the privy council, address the king
2013 July 19, Peter Wilby, “ Finland spreads word on schools”, in , volume 189, number 6, page 30: The Guardian Weekly Imagine a country where children do nothing but play until they start compulsory schooling at age seven. Then, without exception, they attend comprehensives until the age of 16. [… ] Children address teachers by their first names. Even 15-year-olds do no more than 30 minutes' homework a night.
( transitive ) To direct in writing, as a letter; to superscribe, or to direct and transmit.
He addressed a letter.
( transitive ) To make suit to as a lover; to court; to woo.
Synonyms: , romance ; put the moves on see also Thesaurus: woo
( transitive ) To consign or entrust to the care of another, as agent or factor.
The ship was addressed to a merchant in Baltimore.
( transitive ) To address oneself to; to prepare oneself for; to apply oneself to; to direct one's speech, discourse or efforts to.
1990, Stephen King,
The Moving Finger He stepped away from the sink, put up the toilet ring (Vi complained bitterly if he forgot to put it down when he was through, but never seemed to feel any pressing need to put it back up when she was), and addressed the John. 2012 March 1, Lee A. Groat, “ Gemstones”, in , volume 100, number 2, page 128: American Scientist Although there are dozens of different types of gems, among the best known and most important are […] . (Common gem materials not addressed in this article include amber, amethyst, chalcedony, garnet, lazurite, malachite, opals, peridot, rhodonite, spinel, tourmaline, turquoise and zircon.)
( transitive , formal ) To direct attention towards a problem or obstacle, in an attempt to resolve it.
2012 April 19, Josh Halliday, “ Free speech haven or lawless cesspool – can the internet be civilised?”, in The Guardian: "By all means we want people to use social media, but we do not want you to use it in ways that will incite violence," said Jonathan Toy, Southwark council's head of community safety. "This remains a big issue for us and without some form of censorship purely focusing on [violent videos], I'm not sure how we can address it." 2020 December 2, Mark Phillips, “Rebuilding Rail in the 2020s”, in Rail, page 46: Formerly [sic: Formally] known as the Rail Safety and Standards Board, the not-for-profit organisation's remit includes managing and developing Railway Group Standards on behalf of the rail industry, leading the development of long-term safety strategy, and supporting cross-industry groups that address major areas of safety risk.
( transitive , computing ) To refer to a location in computer memory. ( transitive , golf , Scotland ) To get ready to hit (the ball on the tee).
Usage notes [ edit ]
The intransitive uses can be understood as omission of the reflexive pronoun.
Derived terms [ edit ]
Translations [ edit ]
(obsolete in English) to prepare oneself
(obsolete in English) to direct speech
(obsolete in English) to aim
(obsolete in English) to prepare
reflexively: to prepare oneself
(archaic in English) to clothe or array
to direct speech to
, səslənmək , müraciət etmək , xitab etmək üz tutmaq Belarusian:
звярта́цца impf ( zvjartácca ), звярну́цца pf ( zvjarnúcca ) Bulgarian:
обръ́щам се (bg) impf ( obrǎ́štam se ) Esperanto:
puhua (fi) ( + allative ) French:
s'adresser à (fr) Hungarian:
szólít , (hu) megszólít , (hu) üdvözöl , (hu) köszönt , (hu) szól (hu) Italian:
rivolgersi (it) Latin:
alloquor , (la) affor Macedonian:
упатува ( upatuva ) Ngazidja Comorian:
обраща́ться (ru) impf ( obraščátʹsja ), обрати́ться (ru) pf ( obratítʹsja ) Ukrainian:
зверта́тися impf ( zvertátysja ), зверну́тися pf ( zvernútysja ) Welsh: annerch (cy)
to make suit to as a lover
to consign or intrust to the care of another
to address oneself to; to prepare oneself for; to apply oneself to; to direct one's speech or discourse to
to direct attention towards a problem or obstacle
to refer to a location in computer memory
golf: to get ready to hit
Translations to be checked
References [ edit ]
Pronunciation [ edit ]
address ( plural )
address ( third-person singular simple present , addresses present participle , addressin simple past , addressed past participle )
References [ edit ]