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U+61C9, 應
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-61C9

[U+61C8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+61CA]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈人土心 (IOGP) or 戈土心 (IGP), four-corner 00231, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 405, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 746, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2359, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+61C9

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯŋ, *qɯŋs): phonetic (OC *qɯŋ) + semantic (heart).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • êng3 - literary;
  • ing3 - vernacular.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 應 (該)
    Mandarin Beijing /iŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /iŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /iŋ²¹/
    Jinan /iŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /iŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /iŋ³¹²/
    Xi'an /iŋ²¹/
    Xining /iə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /iŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ĩn¹³/
    Ürümqi /iŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /in³⁵/
    Chengdu /in⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /in²¹³/
    Kunming /ĩ¹/
    Nanjing /in³¹/
    Hefei /in²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /iŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ĩŋ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /iŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /in⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔin³³/
    Wenzhou /j̠aŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃³²⁴/
    Tunxi /iɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /in⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /in⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /in⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /in⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /jeŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /jiŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /eiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /eŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /eŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (133)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɨŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɨŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔieŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiəŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭəŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯əŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yīng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jing1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔing ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[q](r)əŋ/
    English ought

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 15346
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qɯŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. should; ought to
    2. perhaps; maybe

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • en - colloquial ("to reply");
    • yin - literary ("to agree, to handle");
    • yín - colloquial ("to promise").
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ìn - vernacular;
    • èng - literary;
    • eng - surname.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 應 (對)
    Mandarin Beijing /iŋ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iŋ⁵³/
    Tianjin /iŋ⁵³/
    Jinan /iŋ²¹/
    Qingdao /iŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /iŋ³¹²/
    Xi'an /iŋ⁴⁴/
    Xining /iə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /iŋ¹³/
    Lanzhou /ĩn¹³/
    Ürümqi /iŋ²¹³/
    Wuhan /in³⁵/
    Chengdu /in¹³/
    Guiyang /in²¹³/
    Kunming /ĩ²¹²/
    Nanjing /in⁴⁴/
    Hefei /in⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəŋ⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /iŋ³⁵/
    /i³⁵/ 答~
    Hohhot /ĩŋ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /iŋ³⁵/
    Suzhou /in⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /ʔin⁵³⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /j̠aŋ⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃³²⁴/
    Tunxi /in⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /in⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /in⁴⁵/ ~付
    /ŋiɛn⁴⁵/ ~一聲
    Hakka Meixian /in⁵³/
    Taoyuan /in⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ³³/
    Nanning /jeŋ³³/
    Hong Kong /jiŋ³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ²¹/
    /in²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛiŋ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /aiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /eŋ²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /eŋ³⁵/
    /in³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (133)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɨŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɨŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔieŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔiŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔiəŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ĭəŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔi̯əŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yìng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jing3
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 15349
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qɯŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to answer; to reply
    2. to permit; to promise
    3. to agree; to echo; to go along with
    4. to handle; to deal with
    5. (of words, etc.) to come true; to be confirmed
    6. to suit; to fit
    7. to accept
    8. 41st tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "response" (𝌮)
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (おう) (ō)

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 3[edit]



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 應 (該) 應 (對)
    Mandarin Beijing /iŋ⁵⁵/ /iŋ⁵¹/
    Harbin /iŋ⁴⁴/ /iŋ⁵³/
    Tianjin /iŋ²¹/ /iŋ⁵³/
    Jinan /iŋ²¹³/ /iŋ²¹/
    Qingdao /iŋ²¹³/ /iŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /iŋ³¹²/ /iŋ³¹²/
    Xi'an /iŋ²¹/ /iŋ⁴⁴/
    Xining /iə̃⁴⁴/ /iə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /iŋ⁴⁴/ /iŋ¹³/
    Lanzhou /ĩn¹³/ /ĩn¹³/
    Ürümqi /iŋ⁴⁴/ /iŋ²¹³/
    Wuhan /in³⁵/ /in³⁵/
    Chengdu /in⁵⁵/ /in¹³/
    Guiyang /in²¹³/ /in²¹³/
    Kunming /ĩ¹/ /ĩ²¹²/
    Nanjing /in³¹/ /in⁴⁴/
    Hefei /in²¹/ /in⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /iəŋ¹¹/ /iəŋ⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /iŋ¹³/ /iŋ³⁵/
    /i³⁵/ 答~
    Hohhot /ĩŋ⁵⁵/ /ĩŋ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /iŋ⁵³/ /iŋ³⁵/
    Suzhou /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /ʔin³³/ /ʔin⁵³⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /j̠aŋ³³/ /j̠aŋ⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /iʌ̃³²⁴/ /iʌ̃³²⁴/
    Tunxi /iɛ¹¹/ /in⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /in⁴²/ /in⁴⁵/ ~付
    /ŋiɛn⁴⁵/ ~一聲
    Hakka Meixian /in⁴⁴/ /in⁵³/
    Taoyuan /in⁵⁵/ /in⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ⁵³/ /jeŋ³³/
    Nanning /jeŋ⁵⁵/ /jeŋ³³/
    Hong Kong /jiŋ⁵⁵/ /jiŋ³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ⁵⁵/ /iŋ²¹/
    /in²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁴⁴/ /ɛiŋ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /eiŋ³³/ /aiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /eŋ³³/ /eŋ²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /eŋ²³/ /eŋ³⁵/
    /in³⁵/

    Definitions[edit]

    Wikipedia has articles on:
    1. A surname​.

    Japanese[edit]

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of

    Readings[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おう
    Jinmeiyō
    goon
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    おう5
    [affix] respond, reply, answer (a question, call, etc.)
    [affix] accept, admit, agree, consent
    [affix] in accordance with
    [affix] adequate, balanced, fitting, suitable
    [noun] (rare) an acceptance, admittance, agreement, consent
    [proper noun] a surname
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔɨŋH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean ᅙᅳᇰ〮 (Yale: qúng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄃᆡ답 Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: ung) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɯ(ː)ŋ]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 응할 (eunghal eung))

    1. Hanja form? of (to answer; to respond).

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔɨŋ).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean ᅙᅳᇰ (Yale: qung) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 일뎡[1] Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: ung) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.
    1. ^ 平聲

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɯ(ː)ŋ]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 응당(應當) (eungdang eung))

    1. Hanja form? of (should; ought to).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: ứng, ưng, ừng

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.