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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 61 +13, 16 strokes, cangjie input 戈人土心 (IOGP) or 戈土心 (IGP), four-corner 00231, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 405, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 746, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2359, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+61C9

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯŋ, *qɯŋs): phonetic  + semantic  ‎(heart)

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 應 (該)
Mandarin Beijing /iŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /iŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /iŋ²¹/
Jinan /iŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /iŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /iŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /iŋ²¹/
Xining /iə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /iŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /iŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /in³⁵/
Chengdu /in⁵⁵/
Guiyang /in²¹³/
Kunming /ĩ¹/
Nanjing /in³¹/
Hefei /in²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /iəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /iŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /iŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /in⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ʔin³³/
Wenzhou /j̠aŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /in⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /in⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /in⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /in⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ⁵³/
Nanning /jeŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /jiŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /eiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /eŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /eŋ²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (34)
Final: (133)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yīng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔɨŋ/ /ʔɨŋ/ /ʔieŋ/ /ʔiŋ/ /ʔiəŋ/ /ĭəŋ/ /ʔi̯əŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
yīng ‹ ʔing › /*[q](r)əŋ/ ought

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15346 0 /*qɯŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. should; ought to
  2. perhaps; maybe

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 應 (對)
Mandarin Beijing /iŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /iŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /iŋ⁵³/
Jinan /iŋ²¹/
Qingdao /iŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /iŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /iŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /iə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /iŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /iŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /in³⁵/
Chengdu /in¹³/
Guiyang /in²¹³/
Kunming /ĩ²¹²/
Nanjing /in⁴⁴/
Hefei /in⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /iəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /iŋ³⁵/
/i³⁵/ 答~
Hohhot /ĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /iŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /in⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /ʔin⁵³⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /j̠aŋ⁴²/
Hui Shexian /iʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /in⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /in⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /in⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /in⁴⁵/ ~付
/ŋiɛn⁴⁵/ ~一聲
Hakka Meixian /in⁵³/
Taoyuan /in⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jeŋ³³/
Nanning /jeŋ³³/
Hong Kong /jiŋ³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ²¹/
/in²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛiŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /aiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /eŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /eŋ³⁵/
/in³⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (34)
Final: (133)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yìng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔɨŋH/ /ʔɨŋH/ /ʔieŋH/ /ʔiŋH/ /ʔiəŋH/ /ĭəŋH/ /ʔi̯əŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15349 0 /*qɯŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to answer; to reply
  2. to permit; to promise
  3. to agree; to echo; to go along with
  4. to handle; to deal with
  5. to confirm; to verify
  6. to suit; to fit
  7. to accept
  8. A surname​.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(eung) (hangeul , revised eung, McCune-Reischauer ŭng, Yale ung)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ứng, ưng, ừng)

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