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See also:
U+89AA, 親
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-89AA

[U+89A9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+89AB]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character[edit]

(radical 147, +9, 16 strokes, cangjie input 卜木月山山 (YDBUU), four-corner 06910, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1136, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 34918
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1602, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3671, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+89AA

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
親-bronze.svg 親-silk.svg 親-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰin, *sʰins
*sʰin, *sʰins
*sʰins, *sʰrins
*sʰins, *ʔsrin, *sʰrins
*siŋ
*siŋ
*siŋ
*sʰrins
*sʰrins
*t͡sʰrinh
*sriŋ
*seŋ
*seŋ
*seŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰin, *sʰins): phonetic 𣓀 + semantic  (see).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - vernacular;
  • chhin - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰiɪn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰin/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰjen/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰin/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰiĕn/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰĭĕn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰi̯ĕn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qīn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qīn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshin ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[tsʰ]i[n]/
    English close; parents

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13804
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰin/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. intimate; bosom; closely acquainted; beloved; dear
    2. parent(s); father and/or mother
    3. relatives; blood or marriage relation
    4. related by blood; blood (brothers, sisters)
    5. marriage; matrimony
    6. to be close to; to become intimate with
    7. to fraternise with; to support or endorse; pro-
    8. to approach; to go near; to get in touch with
    9. to kiss; to brush one's lips against
    10. personally; in person; with one's own (body part)
    11. close person; reliable person; intimate friend
    12. accurate; true
    13. 34th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "kinship" (𝌧)
    14. (Internet, customer service) dear sir or madam
    15. Alternative form of (xīn, “to renew; to replace”).
    16. A surname​.

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note: Irregular, due to assimilation by the following velar k- initial of .

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰiɪnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰinH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰjenH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰinH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰiĕnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰĭĕnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰi̯ĕnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qìn
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13806
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰins/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Only used in 親家亲家 (qìngjia, “one's child's parents-in-law”) and related terms.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. parent, elder

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    おや
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Cognate with or derived from Old Japanese verb 老ゆ (oyu, to become old, modern 老いる oiru), from the idea of one's elders.[1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana おや, rōmaji oya)

    1. a parent
      • 1988 July 30 [Jul 25 1984], Fujiko F. Fujio, “かいめいさくどうだいかん みにくいアヒルの [World’s Renowned Fairy Tales Book 1: The Ugly Duckling]”, in ポストの中の明日 [Post-Mid-Tomorrow] (藤子不二雄少年SF短編集; 2), volume 2 (fiction, in Japanese), 10th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 112, in Japanese), :
        ぼくのほんとのおやはだれかしら。
        Boku no honto no oya wa dare kashira.
        What are my real parents like?
    2. the originator or founder of a school, company, or other organization
    3. the boss or leader
    4. the larger one of several objects of the same kind
    5. (gambling) the dealer, the banker
    6. one's ancestors, one's forebears

    Idioms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (chin) (hangeul , revised chin, McCune–Reischauer ch'in, Yale chin)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thân)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.