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Regular Style CJKV Radical 186 (0).svg
U+9999, 香
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9999

[U+9998]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+999A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
香-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 186, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹木日 (HDA), four-corner 20609, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #186, .

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1428, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1955, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4423, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9999

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
香-oracle.svg 香-bronze.svg 香-seal.svg 香-bigseal.svg

In the oracle bone script, it was ideogrammic compound (會意):  (glutinous millet) +  (mouth).

In the seal script, the was replaced with the related (“sweet”).

Currently, the has simplified into , and the form of the bottom component has become akin to the unrelated or .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • hiuⁿ/hioⁿ - vernacular;
  • hiong/hiang - literary (hiang - limited in mainstream Taiwanese, e.g. 香油, 五香).
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: hiên1 / hion1 / hiang1 / pang1
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hieⁿ / hioⁿ / hiang / phang
    • Sinological IPA (key): /hĩẽ³³/, /hĩõ³³/, /hiaŋ³³/, /pʰaŋ³³/
Note:
  • hiên1/hion1 - vernacular (hiên1 - Chaozhou);
  • hiang1 - literary;
  • pang1 - semantic (original character is ).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕiɑŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ɕiaŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ɕiaŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ɕiaŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ɕiaŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /ɕiaŋ²¹/
    Xining /ɕiɔ̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɕiɑ̃³¹/
    Ürümqi /ɕiɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ɕiaŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ɕiã̠/
    Nanjing /ɕiaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ɕiɑ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕiɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕiɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕiɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕiã⁵³/
    Suzhou /ɕiã⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ɕiɑŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕia³¹/
    Tunxi /ɕiau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕian³³/
    Xiangtan /sian³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiɔŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /hioŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hœŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /hœŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /hœŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /hiũ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyoŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xiɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hiaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiaŋ²³/
    /hio²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xiɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /xiaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /xĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xi̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiāng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xiāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaŋ/
    English fragrance

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13591
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰaŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. fragrant; fragrance
      Antonym: (chòu)
    2. (of food) aromatic; delicious-smelling
    3. (of eating) having the appearance that one really enjoys the food; (of sleep) sound
    4. popular
    5. perfume
    6. (religion) joss stick; incense (Classifier: m; )
    7. (figuratively) woman
    8. to kiss
    9. (Cantonese, euphemistic) to die

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (ka

    1. a pleasant smell; a scent, a fragrance, an aroma

    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きょう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (xjang).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (きょう) (kyō (historical kana きやう)

    1. Clipping of 香車.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (xjang). Compare Vietnamese hương (fragrance; incense).

    Wikipedia-logo.png
      on Japanese Wikipedia

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (こう) ( (historical kana かう)

    1. incense
      Synonym: 御香 (okō)

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eum (hyang))

    1. Hanja form? of (fragrance; perfume; incense).

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: hương (()(lương)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: nhang[2][3][6][4][5][7], hương[1][2][4][7], hang[1], nhàng[1]

    1. Hán tự form of hương (fragrance; incense).
    2. Nôm form of nhang (incense).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]