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U+9998, 馘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9998

[U+9997]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9999]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 185, +8, 17 strokes, cangjie input 廿山戈口一 (TUIRM), four-corner 83650, composition)

  1. cut off left ear
  2. tally dead enemy

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1428, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44507
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1954, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4501, character 21
  • Unihan data for U+9998

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʷrɯːɡ): semantic (head) + phonetic (OC *ɡʷɯːɡ). This character largely displaced (OC *kʷrɯːɡ) in the received corpus of ancient classics. See also 𢦞.

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (120)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠwɛk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷᵚæk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɐk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwəɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/kuɛk̚/
Wang
Li
/kwæk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwæk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guó
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwɛk ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qʷˁ<r>ək/
English severed left ears

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5562
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷrɯːɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (historical) severed ear of a slain enemy (as trophy and tally for military merit)
  2. (historical) to cut off the ear of an enemy
  3. (by extension) killed enemy; dead enemy

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

The pronunciation was uncertain due to the sparsity of attestation, namely one sentence in the Zhuangzi, which might have been affected by textual error. The following was based on those of 𤷇, whose reading in the 切韻 system would have been homophonic to that of (MC hwɨk̚) > Mandarin ().


Note: Uncertain.

Definitions[edit]

  1. The meaning of this term is uncertain. Possibilities include:[1]
    1. cheek; face
    2. Alternative form of 𤷇 (“headache; aching head”).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 郭慶藩 (1895) 莊子集釋 (in Chinese), volume 10, page 34

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eum (goek))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.