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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 113 +11, 16 strokes, cangjie input 竹中一一火 (HLMMF), four-corner 27901, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 846, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24820
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1267, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2408, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+79A6

Chinese[edit]

-
trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (禦), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 疑 (31)
Final: 魚
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 魚巨切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɨʌX/ /ŋi̯woX/ /ŋiɔX/ /ŋiɔX/ /ŋɨə̆X/ /ŋĭoX/ /ŋiɔX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ngjoX › /*m-qʰ(r)aʔ/ ward off, withstand; sacrifice

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13178 0 /*ŋaʔ/
13179 0 /*ŋas/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to defend, to resist, to hold out against

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(eo) (hangeul , revised eo, McCune-Reischauer ŏ, Yale e)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(ngữ, ngừa, ngự)

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