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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 21 +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人心 (OP), four-corner 24210, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 152, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 109, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5316

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
化-oracle.svg 化-bronze.svg 化-silk.svg 化-bigseal.svg 化-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) of two (“person”), one upright () and one upside down (𠤎) — reversal; change. Shuowen also considers 𠤎 to be a phonetic component.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xua⁵¹/
Harbin /xua⁵³/
Tianjin /xuɑ⁵³/
Jinan /xua²¹/
Qingdao /xua⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xua³¹²/
Xi'an /xua⁴⁴/
Xining /xua²¹³/
Yinchuan /xua¹³/
Lanzhou /xua¹³/
Ürümqi /xua²¹³/
Wuhan /xua³⁵/
Chengdu /xua¹³/
Guiyang /xua²¹³/
Kunming /xua̠²¹²/
Nanjing /xuɑ⁴⁴/
Hefei /xua⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xua⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xuɑ³⁵/
Hohhot /xua⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ho³⁵/
/hua³⁵/
Suzhou /ho⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /huɑ⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /ho⁴²/
Hui Shexian /xua³²⁴/
Tunxi /xuːə⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /fa⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /xuɒ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /fɑ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /fa⁵³/
Taoyuan /fɑ⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /fa³³/
Nanning /fa³³/
Hong Kong /fa³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hua²¹/
/hue²¹/
/ua²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huɑ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xua³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hue²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hua³⁵/
/hue³⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (32)
Final: (99)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Closed
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: hà
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/hɣuaH/ /hʷɯaH/ /xuaH/ /hwaɨH/ /xuaH/ /xwaH/ /xwaH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
huà ‹ xwæH › /*qʷʰˤ<r>aj-s/ transform

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
5327 1 /*hŋʷraːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to change; to transform
  2. to become
  3. to die
  4. to melt
  5. to dissolve
  6. Suffix denoting "changing into ...". Akin to English -ize and -ization.
  7. Abbreviation of 化學化学 (huàxué, “chemistry”).
  8. Abbreviation of 教化 (jiàohuà, “enlightenment; cultivation”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -ka)

  1. -ification, action of making something that way

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune-Reischauer hwa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

To Transform


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hoa, hoá, huế)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.