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Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 21 +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人心 (OP), four-corner 24210, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 152, character 20
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 342, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 109, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5316

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
化-oracle.svg 化-bronze.svg 化-silk.svg 化-bigseal.svg 化-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) of two (“person”), one upright () and one upside down (𠤎) — reversal; change. Shuowen also considers 𠤎 to be a phonetic component.

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xua⁵¹/
Harbin /xua⁵³/
Tianjin /xuɑ⁵³/
Jinan /xua²¹/
Qingdao /xua⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xua³¹²/
Xi'an /xua⁴⁴/
Xining /xua²¹³/
Yinchuan /xua¹³/
Lanzhou /xua¹³/
Ürümqi /xua²¹³/
Wuhan /xua³⁵/
Chengdu /xua¹³/
Guiyang /xua²¹³/
Kunming /xua̠²¹²/
Nanjing /xuɑ⁴⁴/
Hefei /xua⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xua⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xuɑ³⁵/
Hohhot /xua⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ho³⁵/
/hua³⁵/
Suzhou /ho⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /huɑ⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /ho⁴²/
Hui Shexian /xua³²⁴/
Tunxi /xuːə⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /fa⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /xuɒ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /fɑ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /fa⁵³/
Taoyuan /fɑ⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /fa³³/
Nanning /fa³³/
Hong Kong /fa³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hua²¹/
/hue²¹/
/ua²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /huɑ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xua³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hue²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hua³⁵/
/hue³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (99)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hˠuaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hʷᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xuaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hwaɨH/
Li
Rong
/xuaH/
Wang
Li
/xwaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xwaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huà
Middle
Chinese
‹ xwæH ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʷʰˤ<r>aj-s/
English transform

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5327
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hŋʷraːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to change; to transform
  2. to become; to turn into
  3. to die
  4. to melt
  5. to dissolve
  6. Suffix denoting "change into ...". Akin to English -ize and -ization.
  7. Short for 教化 (jiàohuà, “enlightenment; cultivation”).
  8. Short for 化學化学 (huàxué, “chemistry”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -ka)

  1. -ification, action of making something that way

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune-Reischauer hwa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

To Transform


Vietnamese[edit]

Character[edit]

Readings[edit]