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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  + phonetic 

Han character[edit]

(radical 15 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈一木田 (IMDW), four-corner 35196, composition)

  1. freeze
  2. cold, congeal
  3. jelly

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 132, character 46
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 297, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 298, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+51CD

Chinese[edit]

-
trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (凍), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 端 (5)
Final: 東
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 德紅切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /təwŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/
Character (凍), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 端 (5)
Final: 東
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 多貢切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋH/ /tuŋH/ /tuŋH/ /tuŋH/ /təwŋH/ /tuŋH/ /tuŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
dòng ‹ tuwngH › /*tˤoŋ-s/ freeze

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2441 0 /*toːŋ/
2447 0 /*toːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. cold

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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Readings[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(dong) (hangeul , revised dong, McCune-Reischauer tong)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đống, đông, gióng, rúng, đóng)

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