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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *toːŋ, *toːŋs): semantic  + phonetic  ‎(OC *toːŋ)

Han character[edit]

(radical 15 +8, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈一木田 (IMDW), four-corner 35196, composition)

  1. freeze
  2. cold, congeal
  3. jelly

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 132, character 46
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 297, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 298, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+51CD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (5) (5)
Final () (1) (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təwŋ/ /təwŋH/
Li
Rong
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Wang
Li
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuŋ/ /tuŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōng dòng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuwngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤoŋ-s/
English freeze

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 2441 2447
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toːŋ/ /*toːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. cold; (of weather) chilly

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of (“cold”)
Variety Location Words
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 冷凊
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian) 寒人
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. frozen

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(dong) (hangeul , revised dong, McCune-Reischauer tong)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đống, đông, gióng, rúng, đóng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.