A modern reconstruction of the early Jurchen form of the name (likely actually *Jörcen), attested in Chinese transcription as 竹里真 (Zhúlǐzhēn), pronounced Trjuwk-li-tsyin in Middle Chinese, and Khitan transcription as Julisen, developed under the influence of Manchu Jurcit and Mongolian Jürčid. Vajda argues for a derivation from a Proto-Tungusic word meaning "reindeer people", cognate with the Orochs of Russia's Khabarovsk Province and the Oroks of Sakhalin.
- (uncountable) A medieval and early modern Tungusic people, progenitors of the Manchus.
- (countable) An individual member of the Jurchen people.
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- Janhunen, Juha. "From Choson to Jucher: On the Possibilities of Ethnonymic Continuity in Greater Manchuria", Studia Etymologica Cracoviensia, Vol. 9, Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press, 2004, pp. 67 ff.
- ^ Aisin Gioro Ulhicun & al. "Manchuria from the Fall of the Yuan to the Rise of the Manchu State (1368–1636)", Ritsumeikan Bungaku, No. 601, 2007, p. 12.
- ^ Hoong Teik Toh, Materials for a Geneaology of the Niohuru Clan with Introductory Remarks on Manchu Onomastics, Aetas Manjurica, No. 10, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 2005, 28.
- ^ Vajda, Edward. "Manchu (Jurchen)" for East Asian Studies 210: Introduction to Nomadic Cultures, Western Washington University, 2000.