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See also:
U+8ECD, 軍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8ECD

[U+8ECC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8ECE]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 159, +2, 9 strokes, cangjie input 月十田十 (BJWJ), four-corner 37506, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1239, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38179
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1713, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3513, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8ECD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𠣞

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
軍-bronze.svg 軍-silk.svg 軍-seal.svg 軍-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (cart; chariot) +  (to surround).

Etymology[edit]

Etymology not clear. Perhaps cognate with Tibetan གཡུལ (g.yul, army; battle) (Schuessler, 2007).

Alternatively, it is a derivation from (OC *ɢuns, “to move”), or related to (OC *ɡlun).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (59)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨun/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiun/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiuən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kun/
Li
Rong
/kiuən/
Wang
Li
/kĭuən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯uən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jūn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jūn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjun ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ʷər/
English army; camp

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7333
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kun/

Definitions[edit]

  1. army; military
  2. soldiers; troops
  3. a kind of first-level administrative division during the Song Dynasty
    興化 / 兴化  ―  Xīnghuàjūn  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ぐん) (gun)
  • Korean: (, gun)
  • Vietnamese: quân ()

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぐん
Grade: 4
kan’yōon

/kʲun//ɡun/

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨun)

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “explain shift from /k-//ɡ-/”)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(ぐん) (gun

  1. an army, corps
    Synonyms: 軍隊 (guntai), 軍団 (gundan)
  2. (collectively) the armed forces, military
    Synonym: 軍部 (gunbu)
    Hyponyms: 海軍 (kaigun), 空軍 (kūgun), 陸軍 (rikugun)
  3. (military) forces
  4. (historical, military) during the Zhou dynasty, an army of five (shi, divisions of 2500 soldiers) totaling 12500 soldiers
  5. (especially in sports) a team
Derived terms[edit]

Affix[edit]

(ぐん) (gun

  1. army, soldiers
  2. battle, conflict, fighting, war
  3. team
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いくさ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki (720 CE).

The iku part is possibly derived from either 射くう (ikuu, to shoot (an arrow), obsolete), (ikuha, target, archaic), or classical verb 生く (iku, to exist, live; bring to life). The iku- in the first and second etyma appear to be cognate.

The final sa is likely from (sa, arrow, obsolete) or (-sa, suffix attached to verbs to mean “doing time”‎ or to nouns indicating direction).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(いくさ) (ikusa

  1. (archaic) a soldier, warrior; an army
  2. (archaic) archery

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
  3. ^ 1960, Tetsuo Hirayama (平山輝男, editor), 全国アクセント辞典 (Zenkoku Akusento Jiten, Nationwide Accent Dictionary), (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Tōkyōdō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 군사 (gunsa gun))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds[edit]


Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The iku part is possibly derived from either 射くふ (ikupu, to shoot (an arrow)), (ikupa, target), or verb 生く (iku, to exist, live; bring to life). The iku- in the first and second etyma appear to be cognate.

The final sa is likely from (sa, arrow) or (-sa, suffix attached to verbs to mean “doing time”‎ or to nouns indicating direction).

Noun[edit]

(ikusa) (kana いくさ)

  1. archery
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (Empress Jitō, entry 36: third year, seventh month in autumn)
      丙寅、詔左右京職及諸國司、築習所。
      On the fifteenth day (hinoetora), by decree [of the Empress] the political sector of the imperial government and all provincial governors were to build archery ranges.
  2. a soldier, troop, warrior; an army
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (Emperor Yūryaku, entry 19: eighth year, second month in spring)
      高麗王即發軍兵、屯聚筑足流城〈或本云、都久斯岐城〉。
      The King of Gorguryeo dispatched his army, assembling at Tukusököru nö Sasi (another record reads Tukïsiki nö Sasi).
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 6, poem 972), text here
      千萬奈利友言擧不為取而可來男常曾念
      tiyo2ro2du no2 ikusa narito2mo ko2to2age sezu to2rite ki1nubeki1 ono2ko1 to2 so2 omopu
      Though ten million warriors threaten, he will not utter kotoage, but go off to subjugate the horde―this man for whom I yearn.[1]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jin'ichi Konishi; Nicholas Teele, translator (2017), Earl Roy Miner, editor, A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1: The Archaic and Ancient Ages (Volume 4935 of Princeton Legacy Library)‎[1], Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 104

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quân)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.