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See also:
U+8ECD, 軍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8ECD

[U+8ECC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8ECE]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 159, +2, 9 strokes, cangjie input 月十田十 (BJWJ), four-corner 37506, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1239, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38179
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1713, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3513, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+8ECD

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms 𠣞

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
軍-bronze.svg 軍-silk.svg 軍-seal.svg 軍-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰul
*qʰul
*qʰul
*qʰul
*qʰul, *ɡuːn, *ɡuːnʔ
*qʰul, *ɡuːn
*qʰul
*qʰons, *ɢuns
*kuːn
*kuːn, *ɢuns
*kuːnʔ, *ɡuːnʔ, *ɢuns
*kuːns, *ɡuːnʔ
*kuːns
*ŋɡuːn
*ŋɡuːn, *ŋɡuːns, *ɡuːn
*ŋɡuːns
*ɡuːn, *ɢuns
*ɡuːn, *ɡuːnʔ
*ɡuːn
*ɡuːn
*ɡuːn
*ɡuːnʔ
*kun
*kun, *kuns
*ŋɡunʔ
*ŋɡunʔ
*qʰun
*qunʔ
*qunʔ
*ɢuns
*ɢuns
*ɢuns

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (cart; chariot) +  (to surround).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (59)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨun/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiun/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiuən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kun/
Li
Rong
/kiuən/
Wang
Li
/kĭuən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯uən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jūn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jūn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjun ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ʷər/
English army; camp

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7333
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kun/

Definitions[edit]

  1. army; military
  2. soldiers; troops
  3. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    興化 / 兴化  ―  Xīnghuàjūn  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. army, soldiers
  2. battle, fighting, war
  3. team

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ぐん
Grade: 4
kan’yōon

/kiun//kjun//ɡun/

From Middle Chinese (MC kɨun)

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “explain shift from /k-//ɡ-/

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ぐん, rōmaji gun)

  1. an army, force
    Synonym: 軍隊 (guntai)
  2. the armed forces, military
    Synonym: 軍部 (gunbu)
    Hyponyms: 海軍 (kaigun), 空軍 (kūgun), 陸軍 (rikugun)
  3. (historical) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いくさ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, first attested in the Kojiki (720 CE).

The original sense referred to an army or soldiers, then at the time of the Nihon Shoki (720 CE) extended to mean "archery", then finally "an exchange of arrows" → "a battle".

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (battle, fight, war):

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いくさ, rōmaji ikusa)

  1. (archaic) a battle, fight, war
  2. (archaic) a soldier, warrior
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 6, poem 972), text here
       () (よろづ) () (いくさ) () () (とも)言擧 (ことあげ) () () (とり) ()可来 (きぬべき) (をのこ) () () (おもふ) [Man'yōgana]
       () (よろづ) (いくさ)なりとも (こと) ()せず ()りて ()ぬべき (をのこ)とそ (おも) [Modern spelling]
      chiyorozu no ikusa naritomo kotoage sezu torite kinubeki onoko to so omou
      Though ten million warriors threaten, he will not utter kotoage, but go off to subjugate the horde―this man for whom I yearn.[4]
  3. (archaic) archery

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
  3. ^ Hirayama, Tetsuo (1960) 全国アクセント辞典 (Nationwide Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: 東京堂,.
  4. ^ Jin'ichi Konishi; Nicholas Teele, translator (2017), Earl Roy Miner, editor, A History of Japanese Literature, Volume 1: The Archaic and Ancient Ages (Volume 4935 of Princeton Legacy Library)‎[1], Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 104

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 군사 (gunsa gun))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quân)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.