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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Pictogram (象形) – a square well, with supports on four sides, and a dot in the middle for the water. Compare .

Han character[edit]

(radical 3 +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 廿廿戈 (TTI), four-corner 55000, composition)

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 81, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 101
  • Dae Jaweon: page 164, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 45, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E3C

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (丼), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 端 (5)
Final: 覃
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 都感切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tʌmX/ /tămX/ /tᴀmX/ /təmX/ /təmX/ /tɒmX/ /tɒmX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
jǐng ‹ tsjengX › /*C.tseŋʔ/ a well

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2041 3 /*kloːmʔ'/ 集韻又義與𣿅合,吳方言作澸今字
6853 0 /*skeŋʔ/ 說文井字

Noun[edit]

  1. variant of '井'
  2. bowl of food
  3. well
  4. Sound of something falling in a well. Ref: 《集韻》:「丼:投物井中聲。」
  5. Throwing or littering something to lower position.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(donburi): a large donburi bowl.
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(donburi, don): a serving of gyūdon or beef donburi.
(donburi, don): a serving of tendon or tempura donburi.
(donburi, don): a serving of oyakodon or chicken and egg donburi.
Kanji in this term
どんぶり
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Multiple possible derivations.

  • During the Edo period, restaurants specializing in large portions were called 慳貪屋 ‎(kendon'ya), from 慳貪 ‎(kendon, greedy, in reference to “very hungry”) + ‎(ya, house, store, restaurant). The serving bowls were called 慳貪振り ‎(kendon-buri-bachi), literally “greedy” + “in that fashion” + “bowl”. The ken portion was elided, producing donburi-bachi, and then the -hachi was dropped to produce donburi.
  • Alternatively, and perhaps more likely, donburi in reference to “a bowl filled with large amount of food” may be cognate with どんぶり ‎(donburi), an onomatopoeia of something heavy plunking into deep water, or something big and soft plopping down, related to onomatopoeia どぶり ‎(doburi), どぶん ‎(dobun), どんぶ ‎(donbu), and どん ‎(don), all of generally similar meanings. The food starts with a large portion of rice, also referred to as 丼飯 ‎(donburi meshi), which could be analyzed as “plopped-down rice”.
Donburi is also used to refer to something “rough, approximate, not finely worked”, as in the phrase 丼勘定 ‎(donburi kanjō, rough approximation, loose estimate). This is consistent with a derivation from the onomatopoeia, but not from the restaurant terms.

The kanji spelling shows ‎(a well) with a dot in the center, possibly indicating something thrown into the well. This could suggest that the Middle Chinese reading /təmX/ may similarly derive from onomatopoeia.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana どんぶり, romaji donburi)

  1. a simple large bowl for serving food
  2. a one-bowl meal served in a donburi bowl, consisting of a large portion of rice, covered in a meat or fish
Usage notes[edit]

To disambiguate, speakers may refer more specifically to donburibachi for the bowl, and donburi mono for the food.

English-language sources often refer to the food as similar to stew served over rice. Note, however, that stews consist of meat, fish, and/or vegetables cooked in a liquid and served with the sauce, whereas donburi toppings may be relatively dry, as in tempura donburi or beef donburi, or even uncooked, as in tekkadon (tuna sashimi donburi).

Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
どん
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Abbreviation of donburi above.[2][1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana どん, romaji don)

  1. donburi: a one-bowl meal consisting of a large portion of rice, covered in a meat or fish
Usage notes[edit]

Seldom used as an independent noun. More commonly encountered as a suffix.

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana どん, romaji -don)

  1. donburi: a one-bowl meal consisting of a large portion of rice, covered in a meat or fish
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jeong) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer chŏng)

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