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See also: and
U+8CCA, 賊
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8CCA

[U+8CC9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8CCB]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 154, +6, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月金戈十 (BCIJ), four-corner 63850, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1208, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36759
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1672, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3637, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8CCA

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𧵪

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
賊-bronze.svg 賊-silk.svg 賊-seal.svg 賊-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zɯːɡ): phonetic (OC *ʔsɯːɡ) + semantic (weapon).

This was later reinterpreted as a compound of (“money”) and (“weapon”) to produce the modern form.

Etymology[edit]

Possibly Sino-Tibetan; compare Tibetan ཇག (jag, robbery) (Coblin, 1986). Schuessler (2007) points out that a palatalized consonant in Tibetan does not usually correspond to an unpalatalized one in Chinese; instead, he compares it to Khmer ឆក់ (chɑk, to snatch; to steal).

Possibly cognate with (OC *ʔslɯː, “natural disaster”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Based on evidence from early loans from Chinese, e.g. Lakkia kjak⁸ (bandit) and Rục kəcʌ́ːk (bandit)Baxter and Sagart (2014) reconstructs the Old Chinese with a *k preinitial.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • zui2 - vernacular;
  • ze2 - literary.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chha̍t - vernacular;
    • cha̍t - vernacular (limited to 墨賊);
    • che̍k/chia̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • ce4 - vernacular;
    • zei6 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sei³⁵/
    Harbin /t͡sei²⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡sei⁴⁵/
    /t͡sɤ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /t͡sei⁴²/
    Qingdao /t͡se⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡suei⁴²/
    /t͡sei⁴²/
    Xi'an /t͡sei²⁴/
    Xining /t͡sɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡sei⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sei⁵³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡sɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡suei³¹/
    /t͡se³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡suei²¹/
    Kunming /t͡sei³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡suəi²⁴/
    /t͡səʔ⁵/
    Hefei /t͡se⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sei¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /t͡sɛ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /d͡zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ze²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe²²/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sei²⁴/
    /t͡sʰə⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɛʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰet̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰet̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰak̚²/
    Nanning /t͡sʰɐk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰak̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sik̚⁵/
    /t͡sʰat̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰɛiʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰɛ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sak̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (131)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zək̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zək̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zək̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zək̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zéi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzok ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k.dzˁək/
    English injure; murderer, bandit

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16596
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*zɯːɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to damage; to corrupt; to ruin; to destroy
    2. to harm; to injure
    3. to slander
    4. to murder
    5. murderer
    6. harm; disaster
    7. thief; bandit; robber (Classifier: m c)
      琴日電腦 [Cantonese, trad.]
      琴日电脑 [Cantonese, simp.]
      kam4 jat6 jau5 caak6-2 jap6 zo2 uk1, tau1 zau2 zo2 ngo5 bou6 din6 nou5. [Jyutping]
      Yesterday, a thief came into my house and stole my computer.
    8. villain; traitor
    9. to steal
    10. evil; wicked; treacherous
    11. to restrain
    12. ruthless; vicious
    13. (colloquial, dialectal) cunning; wily; sly
    14. (dialectal) very; particularly; immensely; extremely
      好看 / 好看  ―  zéihǎokàn  ―  remarkably beautiful
    15. a kind of pest that eats the joints of a seedling
      /   ―  máozéi  ―  insects that eat the roots and the joints

    Usage notes[edit]

    Synonyms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ぞく) (zoku)
    • Vietnamese: tặc ()

    Others:

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term
    ぞく
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zək̚).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ぞく) (zoku

    1. thief
    2. rebel

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zək̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 적〮 (Yale: cek) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 도둑 (doduk jeok))

    1. Hanja form? of (thief).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: tặc, giặc

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.