to be; thus; so; therefore; then; only; thereupon
he; she; (surname); Iraq (abbrev.); Iran (abbrev.)
|simp. and trad.
From an unidentified western language, presumably from some language in the Islamosphere. Compare Persian مومیایی (mōmiyāyī, mūmiyāyī, “mummy; shilajit”). Earliest attestation was in Ming Dynasty, see the following quote:
- Tao Zongyi (Ming Dynasty), "Chuogenglu - Record after retiring from plowing", Chapter "Mummies": "There were men 70 to 80 years of age in Arabia (?) willing to give their bodies to save others. They never ate or drink, only bathed and partook of honey. After a month, their excrement (urine and faeces) consisted of honey only. After they died, their fellow men would place them in stone coffins full of honey in which they macerated. The year and month of deaths were engraved on the coffins and the coffins were buried. After a hundred years the coffins were reopened - a confection of honey had formed. Colloquially people called these 'mellified men', in their native tongue 'mu-nai-yi'."
See also "Mellified men" on Wikipedia. Other transliterations include:
- 木蜜納亦 (mùmìnàyì, “mummy”), attested in Huihui Yaofang (Islamic Formularies, ca. 14th century);
- 木蜜亞依 (mùmìyàyī), attested in Mingjing Cidian (明淨詞典);
- 木蜜亞 (mùmìyà) (from Uyghur),
- Cantonese (Jyutping): muk6 naai5 ji1
- Min Nan (POJ): bo̍k-nái-i
- Min Nan
- mummy (embalmed corpse)
|Kanji in this term|
The spelling 木乃伊 was borrowed from Chinese 木乃伊 (mùnǎiyī, “mummy”). Some Japanese sources suggest that the Chinese term was a transliteration of Dutch mummie, but it appears that this is incorrect. See the Chinese entry for more.
- ミイラ (a more common modern spelling)
- a mummy, deliberately preserved, such as those found in the ancient tombs of Egypt or China
- a mummified corpse, as of a human or animal