bog

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Contents

English[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Irish and Scottish Gaelic bogach ‎(soft, boggy ground), from Old Irish bog ‎(soft),[1] from Proto-Celtic *buggos ‎(soft, tender) + Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos.

The frequent use to form compounds regarding the animals and plants in such areas mimics Irish compositions such as bog-luachair ‎(bulrush, bogrush).[1]

Its use for toilets is now often derived from the resemblance of latrines and outhouse cesspools to bogholes,[2][3] but the noun sense appears to be a clipped form of boghouse ‎(outhouse, privy),[4] which derived (possibly via boggard) from the verb to bog,[5] still used in Australian English.[3] The derivation and its connection to other senses of "bog" remains uncertain, however, owing to an extreme lack of early citations due to its perceived vulgarity.[6][7]

Noun[edit]

bog ‎(plural bogs)

  1. (Originally Ireland and Scotland) An area of decayed vegetation (particularly sphagnum moss) which forms a wet spongy ground too soft for walking; a marsh or swamp.
  2. (figuratively) Confusion, difficulty, or any other thing or place that impedes progress in the manner of such areas.
    • 1614, John King, Vitis Palatina, p. 30:
      ...quagmires and bogges of Romish superstition...
    • a. 1796, Robert Burns, Poems & Songs, Vol. I:
      Last day my mind was in a bog.
    • 1841, Charles Dickens, Barnaby Rudge, Ch. lxxii, p. 358:
      He wandered out again, in a perfect bog of uncertainty.
  3. (uncountable) The acidic soil of such areas, principally composed of peat; marshland, swampland.
    • a. 1687, William Petty, Political Arithmetick:
      Bog may by draining be made Meadow.
  4. (vulgar Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand slang) A place to shit: originally specifically a latrine or outhouse but now used for any toilet.
    • 1665, Richard Head & al., The English Rogue Described in the Life of Meriton Latroon, Vol. I:
      Fearing I should catch cold, they out of pity covered me warm in a Bogg-house.
    • a. 1789, in 1789, Verses to John Howard F.R.S. on His State of Prisons and Lazarettos, p. 181:
      ...That no dirt... be thrown out of any window, or down the bogs...
    • 1864, J.C. Hotten, The Slang Dictionary, p. 79:
      Bog, or bog-house, a privy as distinguished from a water-closet.
    • 1959, William Golding, Free Fall, Ch. i, p. 23:
      Our lodger had our upstairs, use of the stove, our tap, and our bog.
  5. (Australia and New Zealand slang) A shit, an act or instance of defecation.
  6. (US, dialect) A little elevated spot or clump of earth, roots, and grass, in a marsh or swamp.
Alternative forms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
Hyponyms[edit]
Related terms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

bog ‎(third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (transitive, now often with "down") To sink or submerge someone or something into bogland, especially:
    • 1928, American Dialect Society, American Speech, Vol. IV, p. 132:
      To be 'bogged down' or 'mired down' is to be mired, generally in the 'wet valleys' in the spring.
    1. (figuratively) to prevent or slow someone or something from making progress.
  2. (intransitive, now often with "down") To sink and stick in bogland, especially:
    • a. 1800, The Trials of James, Duncan, and Robert M'Gregor, Three Sons of the Celebrated Rob Roy, p. 120:
      Duncan Graham in Gartmore his horse bogged; that the deponent helped some others to take the horse out of the bogg.
    1. (figuratively) To be prevented or impeded from making progress, to become stuck.
  3. (intransitive, Originally vulgar Britain, now chiefly Australia) To shit, to void one's bowels.
  4. (transitive, Originally vulgar Britain, now chiefly Australia) To cover or spray with shit, to defile with excrement.
  5. (transitive, Britain, informal) To make a mess of something.
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See bug[8]

Noun[edit]

bog ‎(plural bogs)

  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of bug: a bugbear, monster, or terror.
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Of uncertain etymology,[9] although possibly related to bug in its original senses of "big" and "puffed up".

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (all senses): bug (Derbyshire & Lincolnshire)

Adjective[edit]

bog ‎(comparative bogger, superlative boggest)

  1. (obsolete) Bold; boastful; proud.
    • 1592, William Warner, Albions England, Vol. VII, Ch. xxxvii, p. 167:
      The Cuckooe, seeing him so bog, waxt also wondrous wroth.
    • 1691, John Ray, South and East Country Words, p. 90:
      Bogge, bold, forward, sawcy. So we say, a very bog Fellow.
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog ‎(plural bogs)

  1. (obsolete) Puffery, boastfulness.
    • 1839, Charles Clark, "John Noakes and Mary Styles", l. 3:
      Their bog it nuver ceases.

Verb[edit]

bog ‎(third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To provoke, to bug.
    • 1546 in 1852, State Papers King Henry the Eighth, Vol. XI, p. 163:
      If you had not written to me... we had broke now, the Frenchmen bogged us so often with departing.
    • 1556, Nicholas Grimald's translation of Cicero as Marcus Tullius Ciceroes Thre Bokes of Duties to Marcus His Sonne, Vol. III, p. 154:
      A Frencheman: whom he [Manlius Torquatus] slew, being bogged [Latin: provocatus] by hym.

Etymology 4[edit]

From bug off, a clipping of bugger off, likely under the influence of bog (coarse British slang for "toilet[s]").

Verb[edit]

bog ‎(third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (euphemistic, slang, Britain, usually with "off") To go away.
Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "bog, n.¹" & "bog, v.¹" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1887.
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionaries. "British English: bog". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Collins English Dictionary. "bog". HarperCollins (London), 2016.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "bog, n.⁴"
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "'bog-house, n." & "† 'boggard, n.²".
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster Online. "bog". Merriam-Webster (Springfield, Mass.), 2016.
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "bog, v.³"
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "† bog | bogge, n.²"
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "† bog, adj. and n.³" & † bog, v.²".

Danish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse bók ‎(beech, book), from Proto-Germanic *bōks, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂ǵos ‎(beech).

Noun[edit]

bog c (singular definite bogen, plural indefinite bøger)

  1. book
Derived terms[edit]
Inflection[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Maybe from Middle Low German bōk.

Noun[edit]

bog c (singular definite bogen, plural indefinite bog)

  1. beech mast
Inflection[edit]
Related terms[edit]

External links[edit]


French[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog m ‎(plural bogs)

  1. (ecology) An ombrotrophic peatland.

Antonyms[edit]

External links[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

bog

  1. past tense of biegen.

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *poŋka ‎(tuber, boil, unevenness), along with Estonian pung.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog ‎(plural bogok)

  1. knot

Irish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish boc ‎(soft, gentle, tender; tepid).

The verb is from Old Irish bocaid ‎(softens, makes soft; moves; shakes), from the adjective.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bog ‎(genitive singular masculine boig, genitive singular feminine boige, plural boga, comparative boige)

  1. soft; yielding; tender; (of physical condition) flabby; (of disposition) indulgent, lenient, soft, foolish; (of living, conduct, etc.) easy; (of sound, voice) soft, mellow; (of weather) soft, wet; (of winter) mild, humid
  2. loose
  3. lukewarm

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog m ‎(genitive singular boig)

  1. soft
  2. (anatomy, of ear) lobe

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Verb[edit]

bog ‎(present analytic bogann, future analytic bogfaidh, verbal noun bogadh, past participle bogtha)

  1. to soften, become soft; (of pain) to ease; (of milk) to warm; (of weather) to get milder; to soften, move (someone's heart)
  2. to move, loosen; (of a cradle) to rock

Conjugation[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
bog bhog mbog
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Lojban[edit]

Rafsi[edit]

bog

  1. rafsi of bongu.

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *bogъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog m ‎(feminine equivalent bogowka)

  1. god

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

  • bóžy ‎(godly, divine)

Molise Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Serbo-Croatian bog.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog m

  1. god

Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • Walter Breu and Giovanni Piccoli (2000), Dizionario croato molisano di Acquaviva Collecroce: Dizionario plurilingue della lingua slava della minoranza di provenienza dalmata di Acquaviva Collecroce in Provincia di Campobasso (Parte grammaticale).

Norwegian[edit]

Noun[edit]

bog m

  1. shoulder (of an animal)

Inflection[edit]


Old English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *bōguz. Cognate with Old Saxon bōg, Dutch boeg ‎(shoulders, chest of a horse), Old High German buog (German Bug ‎(horse’s hock, ship’s prow)), Old Norse bógr (Icelandic bógur, Swedish bog ‎(shoulder)).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bōg n ‎(nominative plural bōg)

  1. the arm or shoulder
  2. a branch or bough of a tree

Descendants[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish boc ‎(soft, gentle, tender; tepid).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bog ‎(comparative buige)

  1. soft
  2. wet, damp, moist

Declension[edit]

Case Masculine singular Feminine singular Plural
Nominative bog bhog boga
Vocative bhuig bhog boga
Genitive bhuig bhuig/buige boga
Dative bhog bhuig boga

Derived terms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *bogъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bȏg m ‎(Cyrillic spelling бо̑г)

  1. god, deity
  2. (colloquial) idol, god

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *bogъ.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bóg m anim ‎(genitive bogá, nominative plural bogôvi)

  1. god

Declension[edit]