lunar

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See also: Lunar

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The full moon seen from Earth on 22 October 2010
Buzz Aldrin photographed on the lunar surface (adjective sense 1) by Neil Armstrong, who is reflected in Aldrin’s visor. The two astronauts, together with fellow crewmember Michael Collins, were part of the Apollo 11 spaceflight that landed human beings on the Moon for the first time on 20 July 1969.

From Middle English lunar (shaped like the crescent moon),[1] from Latin lūnāris (of or pertaining to the moon, lunar) (possibly through Middle French lunaire (modern French lunaire (lunar)), from lūna (the Moon; crescent shape) (ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *lewk- (bright; to shine)) + -is (suffix forming adjectives).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

lunar (not comparable)

  1. Of, pertaining to, or resembling the Moon (that is, Luna, the Earth's moon); Lunar.
    Synonyms: lunarlike, lunary (obsolete), moonish, moonlike, moonly, selenic
    lunar observations  a lunar eclipse
    • 1774 September, “A Voyage towards the North Pole, Undertaken by His Majesty’s Command in 1773. By Constantine John Phipps. 4to. Nourse.”, in Sylvanus Urban [pseudonym; Edward Cave], editor, The Gentleman’s Magazine, and Historical Chronicle, volume XLIV, London: Printed [], for D[avid] Henry, and sold by F[rancis] Newbery, [], OCLC 192374019, paragraph 25, page 421, column 2:
      By two lunar obſervations the long[itude] was 9° 57′ 30″ E. agreeing within 37′ by the watch, though the day before the long. by moon and watch differed 2° 35′.
    • 1782, Blith Hancock, “Section I. Of the Doctrine of Eclipses.”, in The Doctrine of Eclipses, both Solar and Lunar; Containing Short and Easy Precepts for Computing Solar and Lunar Eclipses. [], Norwich, Norfolk: Printed by J. Crouse, for the author, and sold by M. Booth, [], OCLC 642293824, page 8:
      Lunar eclipſes are not quite ſo complicated in theory, nor near ſo tedious and difficult in calculation, as ſolar ones. The latter are only apparent, the former really ſuch; that is, the Moon is really deprived of its light, and therefore muſt appear obſcured to all the inhabitants of the earth equally, by whom ſhe can be ſeen; whereas the Sun, not being deficient in light, will ever appear reſplendent to thoſe who do not happen to live on that part of the earth where the lunar ſhadows pass.
    • 1783, “the Man of the People” [pseudonym; William Thomson], “I Leave the Service of the Apothecary, and Enter into that of the Lunar Sovereign”, in The Man in the Moon; or, Travels into the Lunar Regions, volume I, London: Printed for J[ohn] Murray, [], OCLC 741691698, page 104:
      You know nothing about fixing the lunar rays into a ſolid ſubſtance, but you muſt not therefore ſay that this is impoſſible. It can be done, and I can do it. Theſe rays, reduced to a ſubtle powder, and blown on the ſurface of the infant brain, ſtimulate it in future life, by their quality of pricking.
    • 1927, Robert Briffault, “The Magical Origin of Queens”, in The Mothers: A Study of the Origins of Sentiments and Institutions, volume III, New York, N.Y.: The Macmillan Company, OCLC 530511, page 1:
      The transformation of primitive lunar deities into solar or heavenly gods are often associated with the transfer of magical and priestly functions to the men and the development of male priesthoods. [...] Or again, in Peru, the official cult of the lunar deity at Cuzco was served by colleges of priestesses, while the service of the Sun-god was performed by male priests.
    • 1991, David Vaniman; John Dietrich; G. Jeffrey Taylor; Grant Heiken, “Exploration, Samples, and Recent Concepts of the Moon”, in Grant Heiken, David Vaniman, and Bevan M. French, editor, Lunar Sourcebook: A User’s Guide to the Moon, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, section 2.1 (Lunar Exploration), page 5:
      Beyond Earth, the Moon is the only body in space that has been systematically sampled. [...] These samples were collected by the six U.S. Apollo and three U.S.S.R. Luna missions from known locations on the lunar surface. [...] Each Apollo landing increased in exploration complexity and returned even greater amounts of lunar samples.
  2. Shaped like a crescent moon; lunate.
  3. (chiefly historical) (Believed to be) influenced by the Moon, as in character, growth, or properties.
    • 1627, [Francis Bacon], “V. Century. [Experiments in Consort Touching the Sympathy and Antipathy of Plants.]”, in Sylua Syluarum: Or A Naturall Historie: In Ten Centuries. [], London: Published after the authors death, by VVilliam Rawley; printed by I[ohn] H[aviland and Augustine Mathewes] for William Lee [], OCLC 1044242069; 3rd edition, London: Published [] by VVilliam Rawley; printed by J[ohn] H[aviland] for William Lee [], 1631, OCLC 1044372886, paragraph 493, page 122:
      Some of the Ancients, and likewiſe diuers of the Moderne VVriters, that haue laboured in Naturall Magick, have noted a Sympathy, between the Sunne, Moone, and ſome Principall Starres; And certaine Herbes, and Plants. And they haue denominated ſome Herbes Solar, and ſome Lunar; [...]
  4. (alchemy, chemistry, historical) Of or pertaining to silver (which was symbolically associated with the Moon by alchemists).
    • 1805 April, “Art. V. Asiatic Researches, Vols. VI. and VII. [...]”, in The Monthly Review; or, Literary Journal, Enlarged, volume XLVI, London: Printed by Strahan and Preston, []; and sold by T[homas] Becket, [], published 1794, OCLC 901376714, page 379:
      On the Poison of Serpents. By W. Boag, Esq. [...] Supposing the fatal effect [of a snakebite] to be produced by the sudden subtraction of oxygen from the blood, this gentleman recommends, by way of antidote, the employment of those substances which contain oxygen in its greatest abundance, and part with it with the greatest facility; and, as lunar caustic [silver nitrate] possesses these properties in a singular degree, he concludes that no medicine is better calculated to resist the effects of the poison of serpents.
  5. (astronomy) Of or pertaining to travel through space between the Earth and the Moon, or exploration and scientific investigation of the Moon.
    • 1963, L. L. Waite, “How We will Get to the Moon: Excerpt from a Speech by L. L. Waite, Senior Vice President, North American Aviation, Inc., before the Electronic Analysts of Boston”, in Skyline, volume 21, number 2, Pittsburgh, Pa.: North American Aviation, ISSN 0037-6639, OCLC 942690637, page 20:
      Several initial experimental firings of the various stages of Saturn V into earth orbit will precede the planned lunar flight. The astronauts will practice rendezvous techniques in the earth's orbit. [...] Before they reach the moon the astronauts will have another difficult maneuver to perform—turning their command module around so that its nose is attached to the top of the lunar excursion module. Two of the crew members will transfer from the command module to the lunar excursion module.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Noun[edit]

The lunar (noun sense 1) is indicated in red in this illustration of the bones of the human hand
An enlarged view of the lunar

lunar (plural lunars)

  1. (anatomy) The middle bone of the proximal series of the carpus in the wrist, which is shaped like a half-moon.
    Synonyms: intermedium, lunar bone, semilunar
    • [1838, Samuel Cooper, “DISLOCATION”, in A Dictionary of Practical Surgery: Comprehending All the Most Interesting Improvements, from the Earliest Times down to the Present Period; [], 7th edition, London: Printed for Longman, Orme, & Co.; [], OCLC 865546489, page 451, column 1:
      The carpal bones are usually described as being capable of being luxated from the lower end of the radius forwards or backwards, inwards or outwards. The case backwards, which has been stated to be the most frequent, is facilitated by the direction of the convex articular surfaces of the scaphoid, lunar, and cuneiform bones, which slope more backwards than forwards.]
    • 1888, John C[harles] L[ewis] Sparkes, “The Bones”, in A Manual of Artistic Anatomy for the Use of Students in Art. Being a Description of the Bones and Muscles that Influence the External Form of Man, London: Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, [], OCLC 820748583, page 16, column 1:
      There are two larger bones of the wrist called the scaphoid and lunar; these form a large ball, and this is received into the lower end of the radius.
    • 1946, Evelyn Feiring, Rainbow of Being, Pasadena, Calif.: Holly, OCLC 632360741, page 155:
      The scaphoid and lunar (wrist bones) are separate, whereas in Carnivores they are united perhaps to give greater strength to the wrist.
  2. (nautical, navigation) An observation of a lunar distance (the angle between the Moon and another celestial body), especially for establishing the longitude of a ship at sea.
    • 1859 October, Henry Toynbee, “A Few More Words on Lunars”, in The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle: A Journal of Papers on Subjects Connected with Maritime Affairs, volume XXVIII, number 10, London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co. []; and J. D. Potter, [], OCLC 845531299, page 511:
      [Y]oung beginners cannot be too often cautioned that a single lunar is of little or no value until the observer knows the usual difference between his lunars taken on opposite sides of the moon; and these should be taken with the same instrument, using the same screens and telescope, for he must remember that they may be expected to differ. My star lunars differ from three to four minutes, or say fifty miles of longitude; my sun lunars from one to two minutes, or say twenty minutes of longitude.
    • 2007, John Karl, “Lunar Distance Sights”, in Celestial Navigation in the GPS Age, Arcata, Calif.: Paradise Cay Publications; Wichita, Kan.: Celestaire, →ISBN, pages 96–97:
      With cheap quartz watches (several, for reliability) we can do all the modern celestial navigation we could want. But learning and practicing lunars gives us deeper insight into celestial navigation; an appreciation for their historical importance and difficulty; and perhaps most significant of all, after conquering lunars we can appreciate the great convenience of St. Hilaire sights and modern quartz watches. Moreover, in the rare event of losing UT, with lunars and only a poor watch we can still be confident of finding our longitude at sea (well, OK, to within 30′).

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References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin lūnāris.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

lunar (masculine and feminine plural lunars)

  1. lunar

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Chavacano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Spanish lunar (mole).

Noun[edit]

lunar

  1. (anatomy) mole

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Latin lūnāris. Compare the inherited luar.

Adjective[edit]

lunar m or f (plural lunares)

  1. lunar

Noun[edit]

lunar m (plural lunares)

  1. mole, birthmark

Further reading[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

lunar (not comparable)

  1. lunar
    Synonym: lunarisch

Declension[edit]

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Further reading[edit]


Portuguese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Latin lūnāris. Cognate of inherited luar.

Adjective[edit]

lunar (plural lunares, comparable)

  1. lunar

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Spanish lunar, from Latin lūnāris.

Noun[edit]

lunar m (plural lunares)

  1. mole, birthmark

Further reading[edit]

  • lunar” in Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa.

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin lūnāris.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /luˈnaɾ/
  • Hyphenation: lu‧nar

Adjective[edit]

lunar (plural lunares)

  1. lunar

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

lunar m (plural lunares)

  1. mole, birthmark
  2. polka dot

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]