(modal auxiliary verb, defective)Used before a verb to indicate the simple future tense, particularly in the first person singular or plural.
I shall sing in the choir tomorrow.
1900, L. Frank Baum , The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Chapter 23
"My third command to the Winged Monkeys," said Glinda, "shall be to carry you to your forest. Then, having used up the powers of the Golden Cap, I shall give it to the King of the Monkeys, that he and his band may thereafter be free for evermore."
Used similarly to indicate determination or obligation, particularly in the second and third persons singular and plural.
(determination): You shall go to the ball!
(obligation): Citizens shall provide proof of identity.
Used in questions to suggest a possible future action.
Shall is about one fourth as common relative to will in North America as in the UK. Some in North America may consider it formal or even pompous.
In the past, will and shall have been used similarly as auxiliary verbs for the future tense. The simple future tense traditionally uses shall for the first person ("I" and "we"), and will for the second and third persons.
I shall go.
You will go.
An emphatic future tense, with a sense of must, reverses the two words, using will for the first person and shall for the second and third person.
I will go.
You shall go.
Usage can be reversed in questions and in dependent clauses—especially with indirect discourse. For example: Shall you do it? is equivalent in meaning to Will you do it? as it anticipates your response I shall do it. Or: he says that he shall win or he expects that he shall win report his saying I shall win, not I will win.
French: (indicating determination) shall followed by the infinitive is translated using the future tense, which can be emphasised using "bien" or a similar adverbial construction; (indicating obligation) devoir, êtreobligé de
You shall go to the ball! - Mais tu iras bien au bal! or Ah oui, tu iras au bal!
Citizens shall provide identity - Les citoyens doivent fournir une pièce d'identité or Les citoyens sont obligés de fournir une pièce d'identité
Italian: (indicating determination) shall followed by the infinitive is translated using the future tense, which can be emphasised using "sì che" or a similar adverbial construction; (indicating obligation) dovere, essereobbligato di
You shall go to the ball! - Sì che andrai al ballo!
Citizens shall provide identity - I cittadini devono fornire identificazione or I cittadini sono obbligati a fornire identificazione