devoir

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowing from French devoir, from Old French deveir, from Latin dēbēre ‎(to owe, to be duty bound to do something).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /dəˈvwɑː/
  • Hyphenation: de‧voir

Noun[edit]

devoir ‎(plural devoirs)

  1. (archaic, often in plural) Duty, business; something that one must do.

Anagrams[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French deveir, from Latin dēbēre, present active infinitive of dēbeō ‎(to owe, to be duty bound to do something).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

devoir m ‎(plural devoirs)

  1. duty
  2. exercise (set for homework)

Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

devoir

  1. must, to have to (as a requirement)
  2. must, to do or have with certainty
  3. (transitive) to owe (money, obligation and etc)
  4. (literary, intransitive, in imperfect subjunctive, with inversion of subject) (even) though it be necessary (+ infinitive)
    • 1842, George Sand, Consuelo:
      Eh bien, se dit-elle, j'irai, dussé-je affronter les dangers réels [...]. ⇒ Well, she said to herself, I'll go, even if I have to face real danger.
  5. (reflexive, ~ à) to have a duty to

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • The past participle drops the circumflex accent in its other forms: feminine singular due; masculine plural dus; feminine plural dues.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin dēbēre, present active infinitive of dēbeō ‎(I owe, I am duty bound to do something).

Verb[edit]

devoir

  1. (modal) to have to; must
  2. to owe

Conjugation[edit]

This verb conjugates as a third-group verb. This verb has a stressed present stem doiv distinct from the unstressed stem dev, as well as other irregularities. Old French conjugation varies significantly by date and by region. The following conjugation should be treated as a guide.

  • The trema on the u of the past participle deü is not used by all authors.
  • The feminine forms of the past participle are more commonly spelled due and dues, though deue and deues are attested.

Noun[edit]

devoir m ‎(oblique plural devoirs, nominative singular devoirs, nominative plural devoir)

  1. debt

Descendants[edit]

  • English: due (from past participle deu, deü)
  • Middle French: debvoir

References[edit]

  • (fr) Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881) (devoir)
  • “Appendix E: Irregular Verbs” in E. Einhorn (1974), Old French: A Concise Handbook, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-09838-6, pages 152–153