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See also:
U+61FC, 懼
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-61FC

[U+61FB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+61FD]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 61, +18, 21 strokes, cangjie input 心月山土 (PBUG), four-corner 96014, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 408, character 43
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11488
  • Dae Jaweon: page 750, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2371, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+61FC

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
variant forms ⿰忄⿵冂大 (second-round simplified)

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʷas, *ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa, *ɡʷas
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷa
*ɡʷas

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡʷas): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kʷas, *ɡʷa).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (24)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡɨoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡioH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡioH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/guə̆H/
Li
Rong
/ɡioH/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯uH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ʷ(r)a(k)-s/
English fear (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7151
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡʷas/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to fear; to be afraid
  2. to scare; to frighten

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 害怕 (“to fear; to be afraid of”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese , , , , , , , ,
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 害怕, 懼怕, 畏懼
Mandarin Beijing 害怕
Taiwan 害怕,
Harbin 害怕, 發毛
Jinan 害怕, , 打怵
Muping 害怕,
Luoyang 害怕,
Wanrong
Xi'an 害怕, , 怯火
Xuzhou 嫌怕, 打怵
Yinchuan 害怕,
Lanzhou 害怕, , 怯乎, 怯豁
Ürümqi 害怕
Wuhan 嚇不過,
Chengdu 害怕, 虛火,
Guiyang 害怕,
Liuzhou
Yangzhou 害怕, , 怕懼, 懼乎
Nanjing 嚇怕,
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou , , ,
Hong Kong , ,
Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
Foshan ,
Shunde
Zhongshan (Shiqi)
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
Taishan 𢗉
Kaiping (Chikan) 𢗉
Dongguan
Shaoguan ,
Yunfu ,
Yangjiang 𢗉
Xinyi
Lianjiang
Kuala Lumpur
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan
Hakka Meixian , 怕畏, ,
Changting
Wuping
Ninghua
Yudu
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong
Sabah
Senai
Singkawang
Huizhou Jixi ,
Jin Taiyuan 害怕,
Xinzhou 著怕,
Min Bei Jian'ou , , ,
Dikou
Songxi
Zhenghe
Zhenqian
Jianyang
Wuyishan
Shibei
Min Dong Fuzhou
Changle
Fuqing
Yongtai
Gutian
Fu'an
Ningde
Shouning
Zhouning
Fuding
Min Nan Xiamen , 驚惶, , 懾屎
Quanzhou , , 懾屎
Zhangzhou , 驚惶,
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Wuqi 驚惶
Hsinchu
Taitung
Lukang
Yilan
Magong
Penang
Chaozhou
Johor Bahru
Haikou
Leizhou
Puxian Min Putian
Pinghua Nanning ,
Wu Shanghai ,
Suzhou ,
Hangzhou , , , 怕慌, 發毛
Wenzhou ,
Chongming
Danyang
Jinhua
Ningbo ,
Xiang Changsha , 畏怯
Shuangfeng
Loudi

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. fear
  2. overawed

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gu) (hangeul , revised gu, McCune–Reischauer ku, Yale kwu)

  1. fear, be afraid of, dread

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cụ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.