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See also:
U+9BE8, 鯨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9BE8

[U+9BE7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9BE9]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 195 +8, 19 strokes, cangjie input 弓火卜口火 (NFYRF), four-corner 20396, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1473, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 46257
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2005, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4698, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9BE8

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alt. forms
𩼃

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
鯨-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raŋ, *ɡ·raŋs, *ɡ·raŋs
*ɡ·raŋ
*ɡ·raŋ
*ɡ·raŋ
*ɡ·raŋ
*ɡ·raŋs
*ɡ·raŋs, *ɡ·raɡ
*ɡaŋs
*kraŋ
*kraŋ
*kraŋ
*kraŋʔ
*ɡraŋ
*ɡraŋ
*ɡraŋ
*ɡraŋ
*ɡraŋs
*qraŋʔ
*qraŋʔ, *kʷraŋʔ
*kʷraŋʔ
*kʷraŋʔ
*ɡʷraːŋʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡraŋ): semantic  (fish) + phonetic  (OC *kraŋ).

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *kraŋ, “mound; capital; great”) (Wang, 1982).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (30)
Final () (111)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/giajŋ/
Li
Rong
/ɡiɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qíng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]raŋ/
English whale

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 6832
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. whale
  2. great; huge

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 鯨魚 (“whale”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Taxonomic name
Mandarin Beijing 鯨魚
Taiwan 鯨魚
Cantonese Guangzhou 鯨魚
Hong Kong 鯨魚
Taishan 鯨魚
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian) 鯨魚海鰍
Liudui (S. Sixian) 鯨魚海鰍
Hsinchu (Hailu) 海鰍鯨魚
Dongshi (Dabu) 海盎鯨魚
Zhuolan (Raoping) 鯨魚海鰍
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 鯨魚海鰍
Min Nan Xiamen 海翁
Taipei 海翁
Kaohsiung 海翁鯨魚
Tainan 海翁
Taichung 海翁
Hsinchu 海翁
Lukang 海翁
Sanxia 海翁
Yilan 海翁鯨魚
Kinmen 海翁
Magong 海翁
Penang 鯨魚
Singapore 海翁鯨魚
Wu Shanghai 鯨魚

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
くじら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

/kudira//kud͡ʑira/

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Kojiki of 712 CE with the man'yōgana spelling 久治良 (kudira).

Ultimate derivation unclear. Theories include an alteration from (kuchibiro) in reference to the wide mouth;[1] an alteration from 開く (kuchibiraku) in reference to the gaping mouth; and an alteration from 黒白 (kuroshiro) in reference to the black-and-white coloration of certain cetaceans.[2]

However, the oldest sources clearly spell the term as kudira.

  • This rules out (kuchi, ancient kuti, mouth) as an etymon, as the oldest compounds using this term use the bound form kutu, not kuti, and there is no support for a kutukudi shift.
  • This also rules out (shiro, shira, ancient readings siro, sira, white) as an etymon. Although rendaku (voicing in compounds) would give modern jira as a reading for , the ancient reading of sira would voice to something closer to zira, and there is no support for a ziradira shift.

Also compare Korean 고래 (gorae) "whale."

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くじら, katakana クジラ, rōmaji kujira, historical hiragana くぢら)

  1. a whale (large sea mammal)
    鯨 鯢 唐韻云、大魚、雄曰鯨、渠京反、雌曰鯢、音蜺、久知良 [...] [5]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Cujira. (鯨) 鯨. [6]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as クジラ.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
いさ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Root isa (“powerful?”) appears to be the same element in verb 勇む (isamu, to be courageous, to be in high spirits).[7]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いさ, rōmaji isa)

  1. (archaic) a whale (large sea mammal)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
いさな
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū completed some time after 759 CE,[8] often with the spelling 鯨魚 (literally whale fish).

From cognate isa above, suffixed with (-na, fish).[7][3] Sometimes spelled as 勇魚.

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana いさな, rōmaji isana)

  1. (archaic) a whale (large sea mammal)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3339); text here
      玉桙之 道尓出立 葦引乃 野行山行 潦 川徃渉 鯨名取 海路丹出而...
      玉桙の 道に出で立ち あしひきの 野行き山行き にはたづみ 川行き渡り 鯨魚取り 海道に出でて...
      たまほこの みちにいでたち あしひきの のゆきやまゆき にはたづみ かはゆきわたり いさなとり うみぢにいでて...
      Tamahoko no / michi ni idetachi / ashi hiki no / no yuki yama yuki / niwatazumi / kawa yuki watari / isana tori umiji ni idete...
      Heading out on the jeweled-spear road, going through the alluring fields and mountains, crossing the puddles and rivers, taking to the whaling sea road ...
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1891, 言海 (Genkai, “Sea of Words”) (in Japanese), lead editor Ōtsuki Fumihiko. Entry available online here.
  2. ^ 2007-2014, 日本辞典 (Nihon Jiten, “Japan Dictionary”), 生物語源辞典 (Seibutsu Gogen Jiten, “Living Organism Etymology Dictionary”) section (in Japanese). Entry available online here.
  3. 3.0 3.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. ^ 931938, Wamyō Ruijushō, book 8, page 3:
  6. ^ 16031604, Nippo Jisho (page 165)
  7. 7.0 7.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  8. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 13, poem 3335), text available online here

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune-Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(kình, kềnh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.