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See also: , , and
U+6C88, 沈
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C88

[U+6C87]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C89]
U+F972, 沈
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F972

[U+F971]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F973]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 85, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 水中月山 (ELBU), four-corner 34112, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 610, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17189
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1002, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1572, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+6C88

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
沈-oracle.svg 沈-bronze.svg 沈-silk.svg 沈-seal.svg 沈-bigseal.svg

In the oracle bone script, it was an ideogrammic compound (會意): (water) + (sheep) — to submerge a sheep into the water (as a form of sacrifice to the river god). Other forms included (“ox”) or (“jade”) instead of .

Starting from the bronze inscriptions, it became a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'um, *l'ums, *hljumʔ): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *lu, *lum).

This character was later borrowed to signify the surname, and the variant (OC *l'um) was adopted for the original meaning.

Etymology 1[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“liquid; juice; to pour; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

Etymology 2[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 3/3
Initial () (11) (11)
Final () (140) (140)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () Chongniu III Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖˠiɪm/ /ɖˠiɪmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖᵚim/ /ɖᵚimH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiem/ /ȡiemH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖjim/ /ɖjimH/
Li
Rong
/ȡjəm/ /ȡjəmH/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭĕm/ /ȡĭĕmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯əm/ /ȡʱi̯əmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chén zhèn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cam4 zam6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5 4/5
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chén chén chén chén
Middle
Chinese
‹ drim › ‹ drim › ‹ drim › ‹ drimH ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.[d]r[ə]m/ (~ *m-lr[ə]m) /*[d]r[ə]m/ (~ *m-lr[ə]m) /*[d]r[ə]m/ /*[d]r[ə]m-s/
English sink (v.t.) sink (v.i.) sacrifice in which gifts are sunk in water sacrifice in which gifts are sunk in water

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3
No. 15255 15261
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'um/ /*l'ums/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (chén).
  2. (obsolete) ritual sacrifice in which animals are submerged in water
  3. sixty-fourth tetragram of the Taixuanjing, "sinking" (𝍅)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (26)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɕiɪmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɕimX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɕjemX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɕimX/
Li
Rong
/ɕiəmX/
Wang
Li
/ɕĭĕmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɕi̯əmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shěn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sam2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 5/5
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shěn
Middle
Chinese
‹ syimX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s.t][ə]mʔ/
English (name of a state)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 15267
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljumʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Shen, a state during the Zhou dynasty and located in modern-day Henan
  2. A surname​.
      ―  Shěn Kuò  ―  Shen Kuo (Song dynasty scientist)

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 沈沈.

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. sink
  2. be submerged
  3. subside
  4. be depressed
  5. aloes

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɖˠiɪm).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 잠길 (jamgil chim))

  1. Hanja form? of (to sink; to submerge).
  2. Hanja form? of (to indulge in).
  3. Hanja form? of (dark; gloomy).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC ɕiɪmX).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɕʰi(ː)m]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 성씨 (seongssi sim))

  1. Hanja form? of (A surname​.).

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: trầm, đắm

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.