知る

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *siru.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "知る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
知る [shìrú]
Imperative (命令形) 知れ [shìré]
Key constructions
Passive 知られる られる [shìrárérú]
Causative 知らせる らせる [shìrásérú]
Potential 知れる れる [shìrérú]
Volitional 知ろう [shìróꜜò]
Negative 知らない らない [shìránáí]
Negative perfective 知らなかった らなかった [shìránáꜜkàttà]
Formal 知ります りま [shìrímáꜜsù]
Perfective 知った った [shìttá]
Conjunctive 知って って [shìtté]
Hypothetical conditional 知れば [shìréꜜbà]

Verb[edit]

() (shirugodan (stem () (shiri), past ()った (shitta))

Japanese verb pair
active 知る
mediopassive 知れる
  1. to know, be aware of
    キムさんの(でん)()(ばん)(ごう)()っていますか。
    Kimu-san no denwabangō o shitte imasuka.
    Do you know Kim's telephone number?
    すみません、あなたの()(まえ)()りません
    Sumimasen, anata no namae o shirimasen.
    I'm sorry, I don't know your name.
  2. to learn, acquire,
    • 1944 February 8, Ango Sakaguchi, 歴史と事実 [History and Facts]‎[1]:
      (われ)(われ)()(りょう)によって(れき)()()
      Wareware wa shiryō ni yotte rekishi o shiru.
      We learn history through historic materials.
  3. to be acquainted with, to know (someone)
  4. (colloquial, in the negative) to care, be concerned with, to give a damn
    寿司(すし)ピザなんか()らん
    Sushi piza nanka shiran.
    I don't give a damn about sushi pizza.

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

When constructing this verb's affirmative present form, the ている construction is used, as in 知っている. However, as an irregularity, when forming its negative present form, the negative form of the ている construction is not, as would be expected, 知っていない, and instead becomes 知らない. Thus, extra care must be exercised when using this term.

This term is contrasted by 分かる, which is used for anything that involves conscious or continuous knowledge, while 知る is used for general facts. For example, the phrase

  • "日本語を知ります”

would mean "I am acquainted with Japanese" or "I know what the Japanese language is". When saying "I know (have acquired) Japanese"

  • "日本語が分かります"

is used instead.

References[edit]

  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.
  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN