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U+8521, 蔡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8521

[U+8520]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8522]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 140, +11, 15 strokes in traditional Chinese, 14 strokes in simplified Chinese, cangjie input 廿月人火 (TBOF), four-corner 44901, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1055, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31818
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1517, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3282, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+8521

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. 𦬁
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Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Qin slip script Small seal script
蔡-oracle.svg 蔡-bronze.svg 蔡-bronze-spring.svg 蔡-bronze-warring.svg 蔡-slip.svg 蔡-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sʰlaːds): semantic (vegetation) + phonetic (OC *ʔsreːds, *ʔsleds).

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhòa - vernacular (including surname);
  • chhài - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡sʰai⁵¹/
    Harbin /t͡sʰai⁵³/
    Tianjin /t͡sʰai⁵³/
    Jinan /t͡sʰɛ²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰɛ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰai³¹²/
    Xi'an /t͡sʰai⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡sʰɛ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /t͡sʰɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡sʰɛ¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡sʰai²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡sʰai³⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰai¹³/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰai²¹³/
    Kunming /t͡sʰæ²¹²/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰae⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡sʰe̞⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰai⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰæ³⁵/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰɛ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰe³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰɑ⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰe̞⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡sʰa⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰɛ³²⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰa⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰai⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰai⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰai²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰai⁵³/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰɑi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰɔi³³/
    Nanning /t͡sʰɔi³³/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰɔi³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰai²¹/
    /t͡sʰua²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰɑi²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰuɛ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰua²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sai³⁵/
    /sua³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (25)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰɑiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰɑiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɑiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰɑiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰɑiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰɑiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    cài
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    coi3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    cài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshajH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.r̥ˁat-s/
    English (name of a state)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5836
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰlaːds/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. weed
    2. tortoise used for divination
    3. () (historical) Cai (an ancient Chinese state)
    4. A surname​.
        ―  Cài Yīngwén  ―  Tsai Ing-wen (President of the Republic of China (Taiwan), 2016-present)
      /   ―  Cài Lún  ―  Cai Lun (Inventor of Paper)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • English: Cai, Tsai, Ts'ai, Choi, Choy, Tsoi, Chua
    • Tagalog: Chua (via Hokkien)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eum (chae))
    (eum (sal))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Nôm readings: Thái

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.