Reconstruction:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/muːŋ ~ r/s-muːk

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *mruk/mrjuɣ (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *(r-)maw = (r-)məw, *muːŋ ⪤ **r/s-muːk (Matisoff, STEDT); *r-muw = *r-məw ⪤ *r-muuk (LaPolla, 1987); *(r-)məw, *(r-)muw (Weidert, 1987); *(r-)muw (Benedict, 1972)

Here is a merger of the two roots proposed by Matisoff (above), per LaPolla (1987): "Evidence from Dulong supports the contention in STC (n.236, p.77) that *r‑muuk is an archaic doublet of *r‑muw = *r‑məw" (p.11).

Words meaning "dark, covered, obscure, dull" and the like in Sino-Tibetan languages tend to have the phonesthemic initial *m- followed by a back vowel (Schuessler, 2007).

[1] Fog.


*muːŋ ~ r/s-muːk

  1. fog, cloud, mist
  2. sky, heaven
  3. foggy, misty, dark, dull
  4. sullen, menacing


See also[edit]