海豚

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Chinese[edit]

ocean; sea suckling pig
simp. and trad.
(海豚)

Etymology[edit]

Native formation, attested abundantly in the Classical era. Also 海豨 (literally “sea-pig”), 江豚 (jiāngtún, literally “river-pig”). Semantically compare English mereswine (porpoise or dolphin, literally sea-pig).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (32) (7)
Final () (41) (55)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Closed
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hʌiX/ /duən/
Pan
Wuyun
/həiX/ /duon/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɒiX/ /duən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/həjX/ /dwən/
Li
Rong
/xᴀiX/ /duən/
Wang
Li
/xɒiX/ /duən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑ̆iX/ /dʱuən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hǎi tún

Noun[edit]

海豚

  1. dolphin

Synonyms[edit]

Dialectal synonyms of 海豚 (“dolphin”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 海豚
Taxonomic name 海豚
Mandarin Beijing 海豚
Taiwan 海豚
Cantonese Guangzhou 海豬, 海豚
Hong Kong 海豚
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian) 海豚
Liudui (S. Sixian) 海豚
Hsinchu (Hailu) 海豚
Dongshi (Dabu) 海豚
Hsinchu (Raoping) 海豚
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 海豬
Min Nan Xiamen 白鰗, 海豬, 媽祖婆魚, 媽祖魚, 鎮港魚
Zhangzhou 白鰗, 媽祖婆魚, 媽祖魚, 鎮港魚
Taipei 海豬仔, 海豬
Kaohsiung 海豬, 烏鯃
Tainan 海豬仔, 海豬
Taichung 海豬
Wuqi 海豬
Hsinchu 海豬, 海豬仔
Taitung 海豬
Lukang 海豬仔, 海豬
Sanxia 海豬仔
Yilan 海豬仔, 海豬
Kinmen 海豬
Magong 海鼠, 烏鯃
Singapore 海豬
Chaozhou 義魚

Japanese[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
海豚 (iruka): a dolphin or porpoise.
Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: S
Irregular

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unclear. One of the more likely native-Japanese theories is that this was originally a compound of Old Japanese elements (iwo, fish) +‎ (uka, food, something used as food).

/iwo uka//iru uka//iruka/

Another possibility is that it was a borrowing from Ainu. Compare Sakhalin Ainu リク (riku), イリク (iriku), or Kuril Ainu リカ (rika, whale).[1]

Given the unlikely sound shift required for the Old Japanese derivation, an origin from Ainu seems more likely.

The 海豚 spelling, which literally means “sea pig”, is borrowed from Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

海豚 (hiragana いるか, katakana イルカ, rōmaji iruka)

  1. a dolphin or porpoise (the mammal)

Usage notes[edit]

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as イルカ.

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2005, Martine Robbeets (2005:190) Is Japanese Related to Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic?
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Kikai[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 海豚 (xojX dwon, literally sea + pig). Cognate with Okinawan 海豚 (fītu).

Noun[edit]

海豚 (hiragana ふぃとぅ, romaji fitu, hiragana ぴとぅ, romaji pitu)

  1. dolphin

Kunigami[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 海豚 (xojX dwon, literally sea + pig). Cognate with Okinawan 海豚 (fītu).

Noun[edit]

海豚 (hiragana ひーとぅい, romaji hītui)

  1. dolphin

Northern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 海豚 (xojX dwon, literally sea + pig). Cognate with Okinawan 海豚 (fītu).

Noun[edit]

海豚 (hiragana ふとぅ, romaji futu)

  1. dolphin

Okinawan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 海豚 (xojX dwon, literally sea + pig).

Noun[edit]

海豚 (hiragana ふぃーとぅ, romaji fītu)

  1. dolphin

Southern Amami-Oshima[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese compound 海豚 (xojX dwon, literally sea + pig). Cognate with Okinawan 海豚 (fītu).

Noun[edit]

海豚 (hiragana ふとぅ, romaji futu)

  1. dolphin