winding

From Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: Winding

English[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The noun is derived from Middle English winding, windinge, wyndynge (act of exposing something to the wind, airing, ventilating; act of winnowing (?)),[1] from winden, wynden (to expose (something) to the air or wind, ventilate; to cause (someone) to be out of breath; to winnow (wheat); of an animal: to catch the scent of (someone or something))[2] + -ing, -inge (suffix forming gerund nouns, and the present participle forms of verbs).[3]

The adjective is derived from the verb.[4]

The English word is analysable as wind (to blow air through (a wind instrument or horn) to make a sound; to cause (someone) to become breathless; to winnow (food grain), etc.) +‎ -ing (suffix forming present participial adjectives and verbs, and nouns denoting an action or the embodiment of an action).[5]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

winding (countable and uncountable, plural windings)

  1. gerund of wind
    1. (agriculture, chiefly attributive) The act of winnowing (subjecting food grain to a current of air to separate the grain from the chaff).
    2. (music) The act of blowing air through a wind instrument or (chiefly) a horn to make a sound.
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

winding (not generally comparable, comparative more winding, superlative most winding)

  1. (comparable) Causing one to be breathless or out of breath.
  2. (not comparable, music) Of a horn or wind instrument: blown to make a sound.
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

winding

  1. present participle and gerund of wind

Etymology 2[edit]

A winding (etymology 2, adjective sense 2) road leading down a hillside from a dam in Gwynedd, Wales, United Kingdom.

The noun is derived from Middle English winding, windinge, wyndynge (directional change, curve, turn; bend of the leg at the knee; meandering course of a river; act of turning and twisting; twisting of things (especially thread) together; wrapping of a cloth around something; wattling of a structure; wattle(s); ornamentation with interwoven patterns; hoisting of something) [and other forms],[6] and then partly:

  • from winden, wynden (to go, move; to move forcefully or suddenly; to direct, guide, lead; to go along a meandering or twisting course; to move in a circular pattern, revolve, turn; to move restlessly, toss and turn; to wriggle free; to move with a turning or twisting motion, bend, turn, twist; to form or mould (something) in one’s hands; to mix together; to cover; to clothe, dress; to wrap (a baby, a corpse, etc.); to encircle, surround; to bind; to interlace; to winch; (figurative) to conceal, disguise; to embroil, involve)[7] + -ing, -inge (suffix forming gerund nouns, and the present participle forms of verbs).;[8] and
  • from Old English windung (woven object), from windan (to twist, wind; to circle, curl, eddy, spiral) (from Proto-Germanic *windaną (to wind; to wrap), from Proto-Indo-European *wendʰ- (to turn; to wind)) + -ung (suffix forming nouns denoting a verbal action or something involved in a verbal action).

The adjective is derived from the verb.[9]

The English word is analysable as wind (to turn coils of (a cord, etc.) around something; to encircle, enfold, entwist, wrap; to travel in a way that is not straight) +‎ -ing (suffix forming present participial adjectives and verbs, and nouns denoting an action or the embodiment of an action).[10]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

winding (countable and uncountable, plural windings)

  1. gerund of wind
    1. The act of twisting something, or coiling or wrapping something around another thing.
    2. (especially in the plural) A curving, sinuous, or twisting movement; twists and turns.
      • 1552 November 30 (Gregorian calendar), Hugh Latimer, Augustine Bernher, compiler, “Sermon XXX. Preached upon the Second Sunday in Advent. 1552..”, in The Sermons of the Right Reverend Father in God, Master Hugh Latimer, Bishop of Worcester. [], volume II, London: [] J. Scott, [], published 1758, →OCLC, page 670:
        [T]here vvill be hurly burly, like as ye ſee in a man vvhen he dieth; vvhat deformity appeareth, hovv he ſtretcheth out all his members, vvhat a vvinding is there, ſo that all his body cometh out of frame?
        The spelling has been modernized.
      • 1849 November, Charlotte Brontë, chapter IV, in E[lizabeth] C[leghorn] Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, [], volume II, London: Smith, Elder & Co., [], published 1857, →OCLC, page 130:
        Eugene Forsarde, the reviewer in question, follows Currer Bell [Brontë's pseudonym] through every winding, discerns every point, discriminates every shade, proves himself master of the subject, and lord of the aim.
    3. (especially in the plural) A curving, sinuous, or twisting form.
    4. Chiefly followed by up: the act of tightening the spring of a clockwork or other mechanism.
    5. Sometimes followed by up: the act of hoisting something using a winch or a similar device.
    6. (figurative, chiefly in the plural) Twists and turns in an occurrence, in thinking, or some other thing; also, moral crookedness; craftiness, shiftiness.
    7. (Britain, nautical) The act or process of turning a boat or ship in a certain direction.
    8. (obsolete, music) A variation in a tune.
      • 1915 September, T[homas] S[tearns] Eliot, “Portrait of a Lady”, in Prufrock and Other Observations, London: The Egotist [], published 1917, →OCLC, pages 18–19:
        Among the windings of the violins / And the ariettes / Of cracked cornets / Inside my brain a dull tom-tom begins / Absurdly hammering a prelude of its own, / Capricious monotone / That is at least one definite "false note."
  2. Something wound around another thing.
    1. (electrical engineering) A length of wire wound around the armature of an electric motor or the core of an electrical transformer.
    2. (lutherie) Synonym of lapping (lengths of fine silk, metal wire, or whalebone wrapped tightly around the stick of the bow of a string instrument adjacent to the leather part of the bow grip at the heel)
    3. (obsolete)
      1. A decorative object, design, or other thing with curves or twists.
      2. (except dialectal) Synonym of withe or withy (a flexible, slender shoot or twig, especially when used as a band or for binding); also, all the withies used to make or repair a wall, or the process of using withies in this manner.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Adjective[edit]

winding (comparative more winding, superlative most winding)

  1. Moving in a sinuous or twisting manner.
    • 1613, Samuel Purchas, “[Asia.] Of the Fall of Man: And of Originall Sinne.”, in Purchas His Pilgrimage. Or Relations of the World and the Religions Observed in All Ages and Places Discouered, from the Creation vnto this Present. [], 2nd edition, London: [] William Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone, [], published 1614, →OCLC, book I (Of the First Beginnings of the World and Religion: And of the Regions and Religions of Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Phænicia, and Palestina), page 25:
      [H]ee [Satan] vvindes himſelfe into this vvinding Beaſt, diſpoſing the Serpents tongue to ſpeake to the vvoman [Eve] []
    • 1631, Fra[ncis] Quarles, “Sect[ion] 4”, in The Historie of Samson, London: [] M[iles] F[lesher] for Iohn Marriott, [], →OCLC, pages 19–20:
      Let her forbeare / To taſt thoſe things that are forbidden there. / [] / The ſuck-egge VVeaſell, and the vvinding Svvallovv, / From theſe ſhe ſhall abſtaine, and not unhallovv / Her op'ned lips vvith their polluted fleſh; []
    • 1697, Virgil, “The Second Book of the Æneis”, in John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis. [], London: [] Jacob Tonson, [], →OCLC, page 243, lines 287–289:
      They [two sea serpents] next invade: / Tvvice round his [Laocoön's] vvaſte their vvinding Volumes rovvl'd, / And tvvice about his gaſping Throat they fold.
    • 1820, John Clare, “[Poems.] Summer Evening.”, in Poems Descriptive of Rural Life and Scenery, London: [] [T. Miller] for Taylor and Hessey, []; and E[dward] Drury, [], →OCLC, page 130:
      Swallows check their winding flight, / And twittering on the chimney light.
  2. Sinuous, turning, or twisting in form.
    • 1544 (date written; published 1571), Roger Ascham, Toxophilus, the Schole, or Partitions, of Shooting. [], London: [] Thomas Marshe, →OCLC; republished in The English Works of Roger Ascham, [], London: [] R[obert] and J[ames] Dodsley, [], and J[ohn] Newbery, [], 1761, →OCLC, book 2, page 174:
      The thinges that hinder a man vvhich loketh at his marke, to ſhoote ſtreight, be theſe: [] a payre of windinge prickes, and many other thinges mo, which you ſhall marke yourſelfe, and as ye knovv them, ſo learne to amende them.
    • c. 1590–1591 (date written), William Shakespeare, “The Two Gentlemen of Verona”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies [] (First Folio), London: [] Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, →OCLC, [Act II, scene vii], page 28, column 1:
      The Current that vvith gentle murmure glides / (Thou knovv'ſt) being ſtop'd, impatiently doth rage: / [] / And ſo by many vvinding nookes he ſtraies / VVith vvilling ſport to the vvilde Ocean.
    • 1607, Edward Topsell, “Of Cowes”, in The Historie of Fovre-footed Beastes. [], London: [] William Iaggard, →OCLC, page 78:
      If his [an ox's] necke ſvvell let him blood, or if his necke be vvinding and vveake [as if it vvere broken] then let him blood in that eare to vvhich ſide the head bendeth.
    • 1622, Francis, Lord Verulam, Viscount St. Alban [i.e. Francis Bacon], The Historie of the Raigne of King Henry the Seventh, [], London: [] W[illiam] Stansby for Matthew Lownes, and William Barret, →OCLC, page 193:
      [I]t vvas ordained, that this VVinding-Iuie of a Plantagenet, ſhould kill the true Tree it ſelfe.
    • 1677 October 22 (Gregorian calendar), John Evelyn, “[Diary entry for 12 October 1677]”, in William Bray, editor, Memoirs, Illustrative of the Life and Writings of John Evelyn, [], 2nd edition, volume I, London: Henry Colburn, []; and sold by John and Arthur Arch, [], published 1819, →OCLC, page 493:
      With Sr Robert Clayton to Marden, an estate he had bought lately of my kinsman Sr John Evelyn of Godstone in Surrey, which from a despicable farme house Sr Robert had erected into a seate with extraordinary expence. 'Tis in such a solitude among hills, as being not above 16 miles from London, seems almost incredible, the ways up to it so winding and intricate.
    • 1697, Virgil, “The First Book of the Æneis”, in John Dryden, transl., The Works of Virgil: Containing His Pastorals, Georgics, and Æneis. [], London: [] Jacob Tonson, [], →OCLC, page 225, lines 808–809:
      My people ſhall, by my Command, explore / The Ports and Creeks of ev'ry vvinding ſhore; []
    • 1791, William Cowper, “[Miscellaneous Poems.] The Four Ages. (A Brief Fragment of an Extensive Projected Poem.)”, in The Poetical Works of William Cowper. [], volume II, Edinburgh: James Nichol, []; London: James Nisbet and Co. [], published 1854, →OCLC, page 156, lines 8–9:
      Taking my lonely winding walk, I mused, / And held accustom'd conference with my heart; []
    • 1794 May 8, Ann Radcliffe, chapter VI, in The Mysteries of Udolpho, a Romance; [], volume III, London: [] G. G. and J. Robinson, [], →OCLC, page 167:
      The vvinding mountains, at length, ſhut Udolpho from her vievv, and ſhe turned, vvith mournful reluctance, to other objects.
    • 1843 December 19, Charles Dickens, “Stave Two. The First of the Three Spirits.”, in A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, London: Chapman & Hall, [], →OCLC, page 48:
      They walked along the road, Scrooge recognising every gate, and post, and tree; until a little market-town appeared in the distance, with its bridge, its church, and winding river.
    • 1950 December, R. C. J. Day, R. K. Kirkland, “The Kelvedon & Tollesbury Light Railway”, in The Railway Magazine, London: Tothill Press, →ISSN, →OCLC, page 838:
      Nearer the coast, the land becomes markedly more marshy, with long, winding channels striking inland from the sea, making access to some of the waterside villages rather difficult.
    1. Chiefly of a staircase: helical, spiral.
      • 1644 February 18 (Gregorian calendar), John Evelyn, “[Diary entry for 8 February 1644]”, in William Bray, editor, Memoirs, Illustrative of the Life and Writings of John Evelyn, [], 2nd edition, volume I, London: Henry Colburn, []; and sold by John and Arthur Arch, [], published 1819, →OCLC, page 40:
        In ye Cour aux Thuilleries is a princely fabriq; the winding geometrical stone stayres, with the cupola, I take to be as bold and noble a piece of architecture as any in Europ of the kind.
      • 1679, Joseph Moxon, “Numb[er] IX. Applied to the Art of House-Carpentery.”, in Mechanick Exercises, or The Doctrine of Handy-Works, [], volume I, London: [] Joseph Moxon, published 1678, →OCLC, page 152:
        VVinding Stairs are projected on a round Profile, vvhoſe Diameter is equal to the Baſe the Stair-Caſe is to ſtand on, ſuppoſe ſix foot ſquare. [] If you dravv Lines from the Center through every one of the equal parts of into the Circumference, the ſpace betvveen every tvvo Lines vvill be the true Figure of a VVinding Step.
      • 1840 April – 1841 November, Charles Dickens, “Chapter the Fifty-third”, in The Old Curiosity Shop. A Tale. [], volume II, London: Chapman and Hall, [], published 1841, →OCLC, page 96:
        She left the chapel—very slowly and often turning back to gaze again—and coming to a low door, which plainly led into the tower, opened it, and climbed the winding stair in darkness; save where she looked down through narrow loopholes on the place she had left, or caught a glimmering vision of the dusty bells.
  3. (figurative) Of speech, writing, etc.: not direct or to the point; rambling, roundabout.
    Synonyms: circuitous, circumlocutionary, indirect, meandering, tortuous
    • c. 1591–1593 (date written), attributed to Anthony Munday, Henry Chettle, William Shakespeare [et al.], edited by Alexander Dyce, Sir Thomas More, a Play; [], London: [] [Frederick Shoberl, Junior] for the Shakespeare Society, published 1844, →OCLC, page 80:
      I will not heare thee, wife; / The winding laborinth of thy straunge discourse / Will nere haue end.
    • 1610, William Camden, “Britaine”, in Philémon Holland, transl., Britain, or A Chorographicall Description of the Most Flourishing Kingdomes, England, Scotland, and Ireland, [], London: [] [Eliot’s Court Press for] Georgii Bishop & Ioannis Norton, →OCLC, page 9:
      [A]ll vvriters are not of one and the ſame minde, as touching the very name and the firſt inhabitants of Britaine, and I feare me greatly, that no man is able to fetch out the truth, ſo deeply plunged vvithin the vvinding revolutions of ſo many ages, []
  4. (obsolete)
    1. Flexible, pliant.
      • 1609, Ammianus Marcellinus, “[The XXII. Booke.] Chapter III. The Most Ugly and Lothsome Face Described, of the Court and Armie of Iulianus: The Same Princes Impietie, His Hatred and Deceitfull Dealing against Christ and Christians.”, in Philemon Holland, transl., The Roman Historie, [], London: [] Adam Jslip, →OCLC, page 192:
        To theſe blemiſhes and ſtaines in Court, vvere adjoyned the enormious tranſgreſſions of diſcipline in campe, vvhen the ſouldiour in ſtead of a joyfull ſhout, ſtudied to ſing vvanton ſonnets: neither had the armed man, as before time, a ſtone to couch himſelfe upon, but feathers and delicat vvinding beds: []
    2. (figurative) Morally crooked; crafty, shifty.
      • 1655, Thomas Stanley, “The Clouds of Aristophanes. Added (not as a Comicall Divertisement for the Reader, who can Expect Little in that Kind from a Subject so Antient, and Particular, but) as a Necessary Supplement to the Life of Socrates”, in The History of Philosophy. [], volume I, London: [] Humphrey Moseley, and Thomas Dring, [], →OCLC, 3rd part (Containing the Socratick Philosophers), Act I, scene iii, page 76:
        I care not though men call me impudent, / Smooth-tongu'd, audacious, petulant, abhominable, / Forger of vvords and lie, contentious Barretour, / Old, vvinding, bragging, teſty, crafty fox.
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Verb[edit]

winding

  1. present participle and gerund of wind

References[edit]

  1. ^ wīnding(e, ger.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ wīnden, v.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  3. ^ -ing(e, suf.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007; “-ing(e, suf.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  4. ^ winding, adj.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023.
  5. ^ winding, n.2”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023; “winding, n.3”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023.
  6. ^ wīnding(e, ger.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  7. ^ wīnden, v.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  8. ^ -ing(e, suf.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007; “-ing(e, suf.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  9. ^ winding, adj.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023; “winding, adj.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  10. ^ winding, n.1”, in OED Online Paid subscription required, Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, July 2023; “winding, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]