dum

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
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See also: dúm, dùm, düm, dům, đùm, -dum, and d'um

Translingual[edit]

Symbol[edit]

dum

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-2 & ISO 639-3 language code for Middle Dutch.

English[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Hindi दम (dam).

Adjective[edit]

dum (not comparable)

  1. (India, cooking) cooked with steam
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Interjection[edit]

dum

  1. Syllable used when humming a tune.
    • 2012, Graeme Burk, Robert Smith, Who is the Doctor
      I like to hang out with friends and travel the world. But if there's one thing I really love, it's Doctor Who. Dum de dum, dum de dum, dum de dum. Whooo-eee-oooo dum de dum, de dum de dum.

Etymology 3[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dum

  1. (nonstandard, humorous) Alternative spelling of dumb.

Etymology 4[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dum (not comparable)

  1. Pronunciation spelling of damn.

Anagrams[edit]


Balinese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Javanese dum.

Verb[edit]

dum

  1. to divide

Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse dumbr (dumb), and in the main sense stupid from German dumm. Both from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-. Compare Norwegian and Swedish dum, Icelandic dumbur, English dumb, Low German dumm, Dutch dom, German dumm.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dum

  1. stupid, dense, dumb, thick, dim
  2. foolish, silly, daft

Inflection[edit]

Inflection of dum
Positive Comparative Superlative
Common singular dum dummere dummest2
Neuter singular dumt dummere dummest2
Plural dumme dummere dummest2
Definite attributive1 dumme dummere dummeste
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin dum.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [dum]
  • Audio:
    (file)
  • Hyphenation: dum

Preposition[edit]

dum

  1. for
    Mi estos en Usono dum du jaroj.I will be in the USA for two years.
  2. during
  3. while
  4. whereas

Ido[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Esperanto dum, from Latin dum.

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

dum

  1. during, in (a period of time)
    Il esis absenta dum tri yari.He was absent for three years.

Derived terms[edit]

  • dume (meanwhile, meantime)

Javanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Javanese dum.

Verb[edit]

dum

  1. to divide

Latin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *dom, from Proto-Indo-European *dom. Compare dōnec from same source.

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

dum

  1. (indicating coincidence of duration): (with indicative) while, whilst, as, meanwhile (as), (for) as long as, until
    Synonyms: interea, interim, quamdiū
    • c. 37 BCE – 30 BCE, Virgil, Georgicon III.284–285:
      fugit inreparabile tempus
      singula dum capti circumvectamur amore
      Irretrievable time flies away while, in thrall to love, we are carried about from one thing to another.
    • 16 BCE, Ovid, Amores 1.11.15:
      Dum loquor, hōra fugit.
      While I speak, the hour flees away.
    Dum vīxī tacuī, mortua dulce canō.While I lived I was quiet; dead I sweetly sing.
    dum erunt hominesas long as there are humans (as long as humankind exists)
  2. (indicating coincidence of duration): (before a verbal substantive) during
    Synonym: quamdiū
  3. (indicating duration with expectancy): (with subjunctive) until, long enough for
  4. (indicating duration with contingency): (with subjunctive) as long as, (for) so long as, provided (that), on the condition that
    Synonym: dummodo
    Oderint, dum metuant.Let them hate, so long as they fear.

Usage notes[edit]

Dum offers speakers of Latin the capacity to express duration with coincidence, expectancy, or contingency. Classical authors most often used dum in order to express coincidental duration, and so it was most often accompanied by verbs in the indicative mood; the adverb dummodo was generally used to express aspects of contingency.

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Asturian: dun (1861 translation of the Gospel of Matthew), demientres

References[edit]

  • dum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • dum”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • dum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • I cannot wait till..: nihil mihi longius est or videtur quam dum or quam ut
    • as long as one's strength holds out: dum vires suppetunt
    • as long as I live: dum vita suppetit; dum (quoad) vivo
  • dum in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Maia[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dum

  1. wet

Middle English[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dum

  1. Alternative form of dumb

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse dumbr, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-. Compare English dumb, Danish dum and Swedish dum, Icelandic dumbur, Dutch dom, German dumm.

Adjective[edit]

dum (neuter singular dumt, definite singular and plural dumme, comparative dummere, indefinite superlative dummest, definite superlative dummeste)

  1. foolish
  2. stupid, silly

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse dumbr, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-.

Adjective[edit]

dum (neuter singular dumt, definite singular and plural dumme, comparative dummare, indefinite superlative dummast, definite superlative dummaste)

  1. foolish
  2. stupid, silly

References[edit]


Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse dúnn (down, feathers), from Proto-Germanic *dūnaz. Cognate with English down, German Daun.

Noun[edit]

dum m

  1. down, feathers of small birds used as insulation material in duvets and sleeping bags

Descendants[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Noun[edit]

dum

  1. Alternative form of daum

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
dum dum
pronounced with /ð(ʲ)-/
ndum
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Old Javanese[edit]

Noun[edit]

dum

  1. part

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /dum/
  • Rhymes: -um
  • Syllabification: dum

Noun[edit]

dum f

  1. genitive plural of duma

Portuguese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From earlier d'um, from de (of) + um (a, masculine singular indefinite article).

Pronunciation[edit]

Contraction[edit]

dum (feminine duma, masculine plural duns, feminine plural dumas)

  1. Contraction of de um (of/from a (masculine)).

Usage notes[edit]

  • The contraction of de + um / uma is never obligatory and sometimes associated with spoken language. In a few cases it is not possible:
  1. When de is part of a preposition, as in em vez de:[1]
    Em vez de um escalão ter três anos, ...
  2. When um is a numeral:
    Trata-se de um ou dois dias.

References[edit]


Salar[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Turkic *tum-.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Jiezi, Gaizi, Chahandusi, Xunhua, Qinghai, Ili, Yining, Xinjiang) IPA(key): /tum/
  • (Jiezi, Gaizi, Chahandusi, Xunhua, Qinghai) IPA(key): /tumu/
  • (Chahandusi, Xunhua, Qinghai) IPA(key): /tumɨ/, /tomɨ/

Noun[edit]

dum

  1. to settle, precipitate (weather)
    Asman dumsa yağmur yağar.
    If sky coulds up, it rains.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Tenishev, Edhem (1976), “tum, tumu, tumy, tomy”, in Stroj salárskovo jazyká [Grammar of Salar], Moscow: Nauka, page 513, 522-523
  • Ma, Chengjun; Han, Lianye; Ma, Weisheng (December 2010), “dum-”, in 米娜瓦尔 艾比布拉 (Minavar Abibra), editor, 撒维汉词典 (Sāwéihàncídiǎn) [Salar-Uyghur-Chinese dictionary], 1st edition, Beijing, →ISBN, page 93
  • 马伟 (Ma Wei), 朝克 (Chao Ke) (2016), “asman dumqïn gün”, in 濒危语言——撒拉语研究 [Endangered Languages ​​- Salar Language Studies], 青海 (Qinghai): 国家社会科学基金项目 (National Social Science Foundation Project), page 260
  • Yakup, Abdurishid (2002), “dum”, in An Ili Salar Vocabulary: Introduction and a Provisional Salar-English Lexicon, Tokyo: University of Tokyo, →ISBN, page 82

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Frisian dumb, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz. More at dumb.

Adjective[edit]

dum

  1. stupid; dumb
    Synonym: hoolich
  2. blindly
  3. dizzy

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Marron C. Fort (2015), “dum”, in Saterfriesisches Wörterbuch mit einer phonologischen und grammatischen Übersicht, Buske, →ISBN

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish dumber, from Old Norse dumbr, from Proto-Germanic *dumbaz, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ-. Compare Norwegian dumb, Danish dum, Icelandic dumbur, English dumb, Dutch dom and German dumm.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

dum (comparative dummare, superlative dummast)

  1. stupid, dumb
    Du är inte så dum som du ser ut
    You're not as stupid as you look
  2. causing trouble or annoyance
    Dumt att den inte levereras förrän imorgon. Det kommer ställa till med problem.
    It's a shame that it won't be delivered until tomorrow. It's going to cause trouble.
    En kopp kaffe vore inte dumt
    A cup of coffee would be nice (wouldn't be bad)
  3. (childish) mean, cruel, misbehaving, naughty
    Han var dum mot mig!
    He was mean to me!
    Mamma sa till Olle att sluta vara dum
    Mom told Olle to stop being naughty

Declension[edit]

Inflection of dum
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular dum dummare dummast
Neuter singular dumt dummare dummast
Plural dumma dummare dummast
Masculine plural3 dumme dummare dummast
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 dumme dummare dummaste
All dumma dummare dummaste
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Derived terms[edit]


Tausug[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *delem.

Noun[edit]

dum

  1. night

Uzbek[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic дум (dum)
Latin dum
Perso-Arabic

Etymology[edit]

From Persian دم(dom).

Noun[edit]

dum (plural dumlar)

  1. tail