上下

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Chinese[edit]

 
on; up; on top; upon; first (of two parts); previous or last (week, etc.); upper; higher; above; previous; to climb; to go into; above; to go up
 
under; second (of two parts); next (week, etc.); lower; below; underneath; down(wards); to decline; to go down; latter
simp. and trad.
(上下)

Pronunciation[edit]


Noun[edit]

上下

  1. high and low
  2. from top to bottom
  3. up and down
  4. old and young
  5. relative superiority or inferiority

Postposition[edit]

上下

  1. about; or so

Verb[edit]

上下

  1. to go up and down

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
あ(がり)
Grade: 1
お(り)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上がり ‎(agari, rising, going up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上がる agaru, “to rise, to go up”) +‎ 下り ‎(ori, descending, going down, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下りる oriru, “to descend, to go down”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana あがりおり, romaji agariori)

  1. ascending and descending, ascent and descent

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana あがりさがりする, romaji agarisagari suru)

  1. to ascend and descend, to go up and go down

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
あ(がり)
Grade: 1
さ(がり)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上がり ‎(agari, rising, going up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上がる agaru, “to rise, to go up”) +‎ 下がり ‎(sagari, coming down, hanging down, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下がる sagaru, “to come down, to hang down”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana あがりさがり, romaji agarisagari)

  1. rise and fall, fluctuation (as a level of something, such as a price)

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana あがりさがりする, romaji agarisagari suru)

  1. to rise and fall, to fluctuate (as a level of something, such as a price)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
あ(げ)
Grade: 1
お(ろし)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上げ ‎(age, raising, lifting up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上げる ageru, “to raise something, to lift something up”) +‎ 下ろし ‎(oroshi, lowering, bringing down, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下ろす orosu, “to lower something, to bring something down”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana あげおろし, romaji ageoroshi)

  1. raising and lowering of something
  2. loading and unloading (as of the cargo in a ship)
  3. weaving on a loom (from the way the warp is raised and lowered)
Idioms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
あ(げ)
Grade: 1
くだ(し)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上げ ‎(age, raising, lifting up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上げる ageru, “to raise something, to lift something up”) +‎ 下だし ‎(kudashi, putting something down; passing something through one's gut, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下す kudasu, “to put something down; to pass something through one's gut”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana あげくだし, romaji agekudashi)

  1. bringing something back up and passing something → vomiting and having diarrhea

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
あ(げ)
Grade: 1
さ(げ)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上げ ‎(age, raising, lifting up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上げる ageru, “to raise something, to lift something up”) +‎ 下げ ‎(sage, lowering something, hanging something down, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下げる sageru, “to lower something, to hang something down”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana あげさげ, romaji agesage)

  1. raising and lowering of something
  2. (more specifically) the raising and lowering of prices
  3. praising and berating someone
  4. good times and bad times]], thick and thin
  5. the start and finish of something (such as the process of setting a table for a meal, and then clearing up afterwards)
  6. the ebb and flow of the tides
Idioms[edit]

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana あげさげする, romaji agesage suru)

  1. to raise and lower something
  2. (more specifically) to raise and lower prices
  3. to praise and berate someone
  4. to start and finish something (such as the process of setting a table for a meal, and then clearing up afterwards)
  5. to ebb and flow, such as the tides

Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
うえ
Grade: 1
した
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of ‎(ue, up) +‎ ‎(shita, down).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana うえした, romaji ueshita, historical hiragana うへした)

  1. up and down, the upper and the lower
  2. the nobility and the commoners
  3. (in reference to western-style clothing) upper clothing (such as shirts and jackets) and lower clothing (such as trousers and socks)
  4. outerwear and underwear
  5. upside-down
Idioms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 1
しも
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of ‎(kami, up, upper; first) +‎ ‎(shimo, down, lower; last).[1][2]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana かみしも, romaji kamishimo)

  1. the upper and the lower
    1. (more specifically) upstream and downstream
    2. (more specifically) upstage and downstage
    3. (more specifically) high status and low status
    4. (more specifically) the city and the countryside
    5. (more specifically) the upper body and the lower body
    6. (more specifically) the first three lines and the last two lines of a traditional waka poem
    7. (more specifically) the first half the last half of a month
  2. various things

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]
Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana かみしも, romaji kamishimo)

  1. (traditional Japanese clothing) the robe and hakama as a set
  2. (by extension) extreme formality

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
か(り)
Grade: 1
め(り)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上り ‎(kari, rising in tone, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上る karu, “to rise in tone”) +‎ 下り ‎(meri, falling in tone, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下る meru, “to fall in tone”).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana かりめり, romaji karimeri)

  1. (music) a rise in tone and a fall in tone

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana かりめりする, romaji karimeri suru)

  1. (music) to rise and fall in tone

Etymology 9[edit]

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on'yomi

/ɕauka//ɕɔːka//ɕoːka/

From Middle Chinese compound 上下 ‎(dzyangHX, literally up and down). Compare modern Cantonese reading soeng6 haa6 or Hakka song-ha.

The kan'on, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana しょうか, romaji shōka, historical hiragana しやうか)

  1. up and down
  2. the upper and the lower (especially, the rulers and the ruled)
  3. rising and falling
  4. an exchange of opinions

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana しょうかする, romaji shōka suru, historical hiragana しやうかする)

  1. to rise and fall
  2. to exchange opinions

Etymology 10[edit]

Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on'yomi

/d͡ʑauka//d͡ʑɔːka//d͡ʑoːka/

From Middle Chinese compound 上下 ‎(dzyangHX, literally up and down). Compare modern Min Nan alternative reading chiūⁿ hā.

A mixed reading, using the goon of and the kan'on of ka.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana じょうか, romaji jōka, historical hiragana じやうか)

  1. up and down
  2. high grade and low grade
  3. the upper and lower houses of the Diet or parliament
  4. ascending and descending, climbing up and climbing down

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana じょうかする, romaji jōka suru, historical hiragana じやうかする)

  1. to ascend and descend, to climb up and climb down

Etymology 11[edit]

Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
on'yomi

/d͡ʑauge//d͡ʑɔːge//d͡ʑoːge/

From Middle Chinese compound 上下 ‎(dzyangHX, literally up and down). Compare modern Cantonese reading soeng6 haa6, Hakka song-ha, or Min Nan alternative reading chiūⁿ hā.

The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana じょうげ, romaji jōge, historical hiragana じやうげ)

  1. the high and the low, the upper and the lower
  2. (clothing) a suit, a set of clothing consisting of garments for the upper and lower body
  3. rising and falling, ascent and descent
  4. the city and the country (the city is considered “up”)
  5. north and south (north is considered “up”)
  6. volumes one and two of a two-volume book or other document
  7. roundtrip travel on a river, going both upstream and downstream
  8. high rank and low rank
  9. the nobility and the commoners
  10. the lord and the ministers
  11. the old and the young
  12. an exchange of words, a discussion, question and answer
Derived terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana じょうげする, romaji jōge suru, historical hiragana じやうげする)

  1. to rise and fall, to ascend and descend
  2. to travel roundtrip on a river, going both upstream and downstream
  3. to exchange words, to discuss, to question and answer

Etymology 12[edit]

Kanji in this term
のぼ(り)
Grade: 1
お(り)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上ぼり ‎(nobori, climbing, going up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上る noboru, “to climb, to go up”) +‎ 下り ‎(ori, descending, going down, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下りる oriru, “to descend, to go down”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana のぼりおり, romaji noboriori)

  1. ascending and descending, climbing and coming back down (particularly as of a person or thing travelling or moving up and down, such as stairs or levels)

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana のぼりおりする, romaji noboriori suru)

  1. to ascend and descend, to climb and come back down (particularly as of a person or thing travelling or moving up and down, such as stairs or levels)

Etymology 13[edit]

Kanji in this term
のぼ(り)
Grade: 1
くだ(り)
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Compound of 上ぼり ‎(nobori, climbing, going up, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 上る noboru, “to climb, to go up”) +‎ 下り ‎(kudari, descending, coming down, the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 下る kudaru, “to descend a path, to come down a path”).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

上下 ‎(hiragana のぼりくだり, romaji noborikudari)

  1. climbing up and climbing down (particularly as of a person or path travelling or moving up and down, such as a road going uphill and downhill in the mountains)
  2. going upstream and downstream (such as on a river, or on a highway with “up” indicating towards a city)

Verb[edit]

上下 + する ‎(hiragana のぼりくだりする, romaji noborikudari suru)

  1. to climb up and climb down
  2. to go upstream and downstream (such as on a river, or on a highway with “up” indicating towards a city)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3